Cytology in practice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cytology in practice Deck (25)
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1
Q

advantages of cytology

A

quick, easy cheap
non-invasive
can be good diagnositic tool

2
Q

limitations of cytology

A

relies on sample quality

exp of examiner

3
Q

histopath

A

more expensive
slower - 48h
tumour grading
immunhistochemistry more avaiable

4
Q

what/where to sample - aspiration or imprints

A

superficial masses
lymph node
organs, deep masses

5
Q

what/where to sample - fluid

A

body cavities
joints
resp tract
cerebrospinal fluid

6
Q

fine needle biopsy

A
solid + fluid filled masses
visual/ultrasound guidance
similar to FNA but no -ve pressure
insert into mass several times - more representative
necrotic centre - sample wall + centre
7
Q

fine needle aspiration (FNA)

A

only if needle biopsy unrewarding
needle in centre of mass, apply -ve pressure
repeat 2-3x for representative sample
release plunger before removing needle

8
Q

touch impression (imprints)

A

good for excised tissue/superficial lesions

made before excised tissue in put in 10% buffered formalin + submitted for histopathology

9
Q

imprints

A

use fresh cut surface of tissue
blot till dry
imprint directly onto slide
4-5 imprints per slide

10
Q

collection of fluid

A

clot prevention - EDTA
bacteriology - sterile pot
slide prep - fresh

11
Q

inflammation vs neoplasia

A

sample mostly infl cells (WBC) or tissue cells (neoplastic)

if both, exp needed - one could be primary cause and the other secondary

12
Q

septic inflammation

A

bacteria/organisms
degenerate neutrophils
bacteria intracellular within neutrophils to be significant
if extracellular - contaminants

13
Q

non-septic inflammation

A

no bacteria/organisms
neutrophils non-degeneratie
no identifiable bacteria

14
Q

degenerative change in neutrophils

A

nuclear change
nucleus swells, loses lobulation + paler
secondary to release of bacterial toxins

15
Q

incr numbers of macrophages - causes

A

granulomatous infl - mycobacterium sp
if neutrophils also - pyogranulomatous infl - fungal
either can be seen with foreign bodies

16
Q

round cells

A
round/oval cell
round nuclei
well defined borders
good cell yield
advantage over histopathology
17
Q

round cell tumours

A
lymphoma
plasmacytoma
histiocytoma
hast cell tumour
transmissable venereal tumour (TVT)
(melanoma)
18
Q

epithelial cells

A
in sheets/rafts/cluster
cell-to-cell junctions
nuclei round + in centre
abudant cytoplasm
good cell yield
sebaceous, mammary, liver
19
Q

mesenchymal cells

A
individual or clumps
spindle - fusiform - stellate
indistinct cell border
long nucleus
matrix production
20
Q

cellular criteria of malignancy

A

anisocytosis - variation in cell size
macrocytosis - large cells
cell crowding

21
Q

nuclear criteria of malignancy

A
anisokaryosis - varying nuclear size
multinucleation - off numbers of nuclei
macrokaryosis - giant nuclei
high
incr + abnormal mitotic figures
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
coarse chromatin
nuclear moulding - deformation of nuclei by other nuclei
22
Q

mesenchymal tumour - what to beware of

A

granulation tissue has malignant features
well differentiated sarcoma can look benign
take biopsy

23
Q

mammary tumours

A

need to biopsy to differentiate between abscess, MCT or lipoma

24
Q

malignant tumours with uniform cells

A

thyroid carcinoma

25
Q

not seeing bacteria doesnt rule out ___

A

sepsis