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Flashcards in Macro minerals Deck (17)
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1
Q

lack of magnesium - clinical signs

A
Range from per acute to sub clinical
Hyperaesthesia
Ears twitching
Sensitive to sound/ hand clap
Staggers and collapses
Champing of jaws
Sudden Death
2
Q

lack of magnesium - clinical signs - sub acute

A

Slow onset over 3-4 days
Spasmodic urination and defecation
Muscle tremor
Staggering gait

3
Q

lack of magnesium - clinical signs - chronic

A

Few signs
Poor appetite
Depressed milk yield
Normally all types have increased heart rate

4
Q

lack of magnesium - cause

A

Low Mg levels in the diet (fresh grass)
Poor feed intakes (rain)
Poor absorption of the Mg

5
Q

lack of magnesium - treatment

A

urgent
Bottle Ca borogluconate with Mg hypophosphate, i/v, slowly
Magnesium sulphate 25% s/c only

6
Q

lack of magnesium - prevention

A

Magnesium alone is not very palatable
MgO in concentrates, mix with molasses
Mg bolus oral
Mg tablets / flakes added to drinking water
Avoid K fertilizer when hypomag is a known problem

7
Q

lack of calcium causes which illnesses

A

Bovine Parturient Paresis
Hypocalcaemia
Acute flaccid paralysis
Milk fever

8
Q

calcium homeostasis

A
Absorption from GIT, kidney and bone
PTH 
Vitamin D3 (converted in kidney) 
Calcitonin
Mg co-factor required at several stages
9
Q

low ca - clinical signs - subclinical

A
Able to stand
Hypersensitivity
Excitable
Tremors
Ear twitching
Ataxia
Bloat/gas in gut
10
Q

low ca - clinical signs - moderate

A
Recumbent –sternal recumbency
Depressed
Dry Muzzle
Cold extremities
Bloat/gas in gut
No defecation
Delayed/absent pupil responses
11
Q

low ca - clinical signs - severe

A
Reduced consciousness
Lateral recumbency
Unresponsive to stimuli
Muscle flaccidity
Reduced cardiac output
Bloat
Death
12
Q

low ca - treatment

A
urgent
20%/40% CaBorogluconate 400ml
Low Volume treatments Maxacal 100ml
some mixed with Mg, P, Glucose
i/v: slow
Monitor heart rate
13
Q

low ca - cause

A

Demand is not met by supply
Absorption from Kidney
GIT absorption - Absorption %-age (Ca in dry cow ration), Feed intake (Fat Cows)
Bone reserves (Old Cows)

14
Q

low ca - prevention

A
Low Ca in dry cow ration
High Ca in milking cow ration
Mg-supply
DCAB
Drench at calving
bolus just before calving
15
Q

phosphorus

A

Local condition
Happy downer
No response to Ca/Mg tx
Foston i/v

16
Q

DCAB

A

DCAB: dietary cation anion balance /diet
Cations: Na and K
Anions: Cl and S
Analyse them in mmol/kg DM

17
Q

anionic salts

A

Anionic Salts are not very palatable and reduce DMI

Can cause negative energy balance, fatty liver, metabolic problems - use with care