Flashcards in 2.29 Basal Ganglia Pathways Deck (35):
two basal ganglia pathways
basal ganglia pathways are modulated by this NT
How do the direct/indirect pathways work overall?
- antagonistic to one another: both working constantly
- balance help produce smooth movements
What type of NT does the striatum use?
Direct pathway allows _______. Indirect pathway _______ to allow for _______ _______.
- smooth movements
outcome of direct pathway activation
activation increases movement
At rest, the direct pathway is ______
Which two things send GABA-ergic input to the thalamus in the direct pathway (at rest)
What does the motor thalamus do normally?
excites motor cortex to initiate movement
What is the result of GABAergic input to thalamus?
- inhibits the thalamus before it can project to the motor cortex
= less movement
direct pathway is _____ at play
motor planning region projects to
striatum projects to
GPi + SNpr » thalamus » motor cortex
Why is the direct pathway active at play?
- cannot inhibit the thalamus
- just because there's disinhibition, doesn't go to zero
movement is ______ in the direct pathway at play
disruption of direct pathway leads to ________ (decreased movement)
indirect pathway outcome
activation decreases movement
indirect pathway at rest: outcome
indirect pathway at play: outcome
disruption of indirect pathway leads to __________ (increased movement)
Where does dopamine come from (specifically)?
What type of neurons does dopamine stimulate?
dopamine signaling favors movement via _______ _______
two types of dopamine receptors
- increases activity of direct pathway
- this is how SNpc has widespread modulation
decreases activity of indirect pathway
The dopamine pathway ______ movement
- GABAergic neurons in striatum die: get hyperkinesia
- nothing left to run the indirect pathway
- get major movements all the time
basal ganglia pathways: motor cortex
- lateral corticospinal tract (contralateral)
- rubrospinal tract
lateral corticospinal tract
- distal limb
- fractionate movement
allows for extension of wrist/fingers (UE)
basal ganglia pathways: GPi
- midbrain (reticular formation)
- via the VLPP, the reticulospinal tract allows for postural adjustments
- where you get your stepping pattern generators