2.7 Vanderah (1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.7 Vanderah (1) Deck (26):
1

Most neurons in the nervous system are of these types

- interneurons
- projection neurons

2

sensory axons: cell body types

pseudounipolar

3

motor axons: cell body type

multipolar

4

multipolar neurons

multiple dendritic projections and an axon

5

bipolar neurons

two dendritic processes

6

unipolar neurons

one dendrite

7

dendritic tree

total array of dendrites

8

What are dendrites surrounded by?

- synaptic terminals
- processes of glial cells

9

dendritic spines

preferred sites for some synapses

10

anterograde transport

transport away from the soma

11

retrograde transport

transport toward the soma

12

slow transport

moves soluble proteins in anterograde direction

13

fast transport

moves membrane associated substances

14

All PNS glial cells are variants of these

Schwann cells

15

satellite cells

flattened Schwann cells that surround neuronal cell bodies in PNS ganglia

16

internode

- myelin between two nodes
- formed by a single Schwann cell

17

myelination of smaller axons in peripheral nerves

- most are unmyelinated
- groups of axons are embedded in individual Schwann cells

18

oligodendrocytes

- myelinate CNS axons
- produce internodes on multiple axons
- a single oligodendrocyte may have dozens of branches

19

Do oligodendrocytes envelop unmyelinated CNS axons?

no

20

Where are oligodendrocytes most commonly found?

white matter

21

two classes of astrocytes

- protoplasmic (in gray matter)
- fibrous (in white matter)

22

Where do astrocyte processes attach

everywhere
- capillaries
- surface of CNS
- dendrites
- synaptic endings
- nodes of Ranvier

23

What do astrocytes do for the CNS?

- regulate ionic concentrations
- transfer metabolites
- control blood flow
- modulate synaptic function
- respond to injury by multiplying and forming gliotic scars

24

ependymal cells

- epithelial lining in the ventricles
- produce CSF

25

microglial cells size

smaller than oligodendrocytes and astrocytes

26

microglial cells: what is their role?

nervous system's response to injury
- sweep through extracellular spaces looking for damage or disease
- proliferate and transform into macrophages to devour debris