3.19 Spinal Region 3 Flashcards Preview

7303 Neuroanatomy > 3.19 Spinal Region 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.19 Spinal Region 3 Deck (38):
1

syndrome

collection of s/s that don't indicate a specific cause

2

anterior cord syndrome interferes with

- pain sensation
- temp sensation
- motor control

3

central cord syndrome: small lesion

loss of pain and temp at lesion level

4

central cord syndrome: large lesion

UE motor function impaired

5

Brown-Séquard syndrome: ipsilateral

- voluntary motor
- conscious proprioception
- discriminative touch

6

Brown-Séquard syndrome: contralateral

pain and temperature sensation

7

cauda equina syndrome

- sensory impairment
- flaccid paresis or paralysis of LE muscles, bladder, and bowels

8

tethered cord syndrome causes:

- low back and LE pain
- difficulty walking
- excessive lordosis
- scoliosis
- bowel/bladder control issues
- foot deformities

9

spinal cord syndromes often caused by:

tumors
trauma

10

Damage by MVA, sports injuries, and falls usually have one or more of these effects on the SC

- crush
- hemorrhage
- edema
- infarction

11

What injury type results in severed neurons?

penetrating wounds

12

spinal shock

- immediately after traumatic injury to cord
- cord functions below lesion are depressed or lost

13

spinal shock due to

interruption of descending tracts that supply tonic facilitation to SC neurons

14

What is lost/impaired during spinal shock?

- somatic reflexes
- autonomic reflexes
- autonomic regulation

15

spinal shock: somatic reflexes lost include

- stretch reflexes
- withdrawal reflexes
- crossed extension reflexes

16

spinal shock: autonomic reflexes lost include

- smooth muscle tone
- reflexive emptying of bowel/bladder

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spinal shock: result of loss in autonomic regulation of BP

hypotension

18

What happens several weeks post SCI? (spinal shock)

most get some recovery of SC function
» return of reflex activity below lesion

19

stretch reflex hyperreflexia

In some people, spina neurons become excessively excitable

20

Why does hyperreflexia develop?

neuroplasticity produces new synapses in the reflex pathway

21

chronic SCI

neurologic deficit is stable

22

abn interneuron activities in chronic SCI

1. inhibitory interneuron responses to type Ia afferent activity is diminished

2. transmission from cutaneous afferents to LMN is facilitated

23

What does inhibitory interneuron activity diminished in chronic SCI correlate with?

hyperreflexia

24

Why are LMNs facilitated in chronic SCI?

loss of descending inhibition

25

complete SCI

no sacral sparing

26

incomplete SCI

preservation and/or motor function in lowest sacral segment

27

Loss of descending sympathetic control with lesions above T6 results in 3 dysfunctions

- autonomic dysreflexia
- poor thermoregulation
- orthostatic hypotension

28

compensation for poor regulation

excessive sweating above lesion level

29

Why do people with complete lesions over T6 level avoid exposure to high temperatures?

risk of heat stroke

30

signs of heat stroke

- high body temp
- rapid pulse
- dry, flushed skin

31

signs of hypothermia

- irritability
- mental confusion
- hallucinations
- lethargy
- clumsiness
- slow respiration
- slow HR

32

orthostatic hypotension =

≥ 20 mmHg fall in systolic or ≥ 10 mmHg fall in diastolic BP going from lying down to upright

33

Why does orthostatic hypotension happen in SCI pts?

- no sympathetic vasoconstriction
- no muscle pumping action for blood return

34

barriers to regeneration following SCI

- oligodendrocytes
- glial scars
- decreased growth rate of mature neurons

35

functional losses not due to original trauma occur because of

- bleeding
- edema
- ischemia
- pain
- inflammation

36

typical complications after SCI

- UTI
- spasticity
- fever/chills
- pressure ulcers
- autonomic dysreflexia
- contractures
- pneumonia
- heterotopic ossification

37

What can protect against UTI and pneumonia?

upright posture

38

What can help prevent decubiti and contractures?

mobility