Week 1 Continued Flashcards Preview

7303 Neuroanatomy > Week 1 Continued > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 Continued Deck (20):
1

What causes Down syndrome?

trisomy 21

2

what does trisomy mean?

additional copy of chromosome 21

3

brain changes associated with down syndrome

- reduced cognitive abilities
- hypotonia

4

hypotonia

low muscle tone

5

neural changes associated with Down syndrome

- reduced brain size
- fewer cortical neurons
- abnormal dendrites
- cerebellar changes

6

What is Arnold-Chiari malformation?

- congenital anomaly
- medulla and posterior cerebellum elongate into foramen magnum
- may be asymptomatic
- may result in hydrocephalus and other problems

7

Arnold-Chiari malformation
- Symptoms may include:

- severe headache
- ataxia due to cerebellar compression
- weakness of muscles of face and tongue
- hearing loss and balance disruptions

8

Why do we get hearing loss and balance disruptions with Arnold-Chiari malformation?

CN VIII compression

9

developmental coordination disorder

- classification for children with normal intellect, without TBI or cerebral palsy or other neuro problems
- lack motor coordination to perform tasks that most children their age can perform
- condition usually continues into adulthood

10

ADHD: characterized by

- developmentally inappropriate inattention
- impulsivity
- motor restlessness

11

ADHD brain

volume of many brain areas is reduced
- prefrontal cortex
- caudate and putamen
- dorsal cingulate cortex
- cerebellum

12

individuals with autistic disorders

- engage in repetitive behaviors
- have limited interests
- appear to lack imagination
- are not interested in interacting with others

13

individuals with Asperger's disorder

- speak and have normal or higher intelligence
- have limited social skills
- have narrow range of interests
- have repetitive and frequently obsessive behaviors that interfere with school, work, or social life

14

Infants who develop signs of autism later show traits at 12 months that include

- poor eye contact
- decreased shared attention
- decreased communication
- decreased social interaction

15

brain differences in autism

- reduced communication among cerebral areas
- larger than normal amygdala during childhood

16

What compete for synaptic sites?

neuronal projections

17

critical periods of development during infancy: what happens?

- neuronal projections compete for synaptic sites
- nervous system optimizes neural connections during critical period

18

interruptions in development during a critical period may explain this

some difference between perinatal and adult brain injuries

19

Adults with brain damage lose

descending control

20

What is true of adult brain injury patients that is different for infants?

inappropriate connections or abnormal spinal motor circuits do not compound dysfunction

*because development is already complete