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Flashcards in Pulmonary Review Deck (88)
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1
Q

What is the most common patient complaint with emphysema?

A

Shortness of breath

2
Q

At what age should vaccinations for pneumococcal pneumonia begin?

A

65 years old

3
Q

Prolonged expiration (low FEV1) should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Asthma or COPD

4
Q

Hampton’s hump on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Pulmonary embolism

5
Q

How long after administering a PPD should it be read?

A

48-72 hours

6
Q

A patient without a functioning spleen is more susceptible to what type of organisms?

A

Encapsulated organisms most commonly Strep pneumoniae and H. Flu.

7
Q

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in children less than 1 year old?

A

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

8
Q

What is the treatment for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia?

A

Bactrim

9
Q

What occupations are associated with berylliosis?

A

Aerospace and nuclear plant workers.

10
Q

What CXR finding might make you think of berylliosis?

A

Diffuse infiltrates with hilar adenopathy.

11
Q

What is the gold standard for diagnosis of a pleural effusion?

A

Thoracocentesis

12
Q

When performing a decompression for a tension pneumothorax where do you put the needle?

A

2nd intercostal space at the midclavicular line.

13
Q

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) may be given to children above what age?

A

1 year old

14
Q

Zanamivir (Relenza) may be give to children above what age?

A

7 years old

15
Q

An HIV patient with ground glass appearance on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP used tp be know as PCP).

16
Q

A noncaseating granuloma should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Sarcoidosis

17
Q

A pearl formation on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Squamous cell lung cancer

18
Q

Ghon or Ranke complexes on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

TB

19
Q

A Westermark sign on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Pulmonary embolism

20
Q

Mesothelioma is most commonly found in what lung location?

A

80% are found in the pleural lining

21
Q

What CXR finding might make you think of mesothelioma?

A

Pleural thickening, remember 80% are found in the pleura lining.

22
Q

Hyperinflation on a CXR as well as eosinophilia on CBC should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Asthma

23
Q

What organism is the most common cause of pneumonia in a patient with cystic fibrosis?

A

Pseudomonas

24
Q

A college student presents with pneumonia. What two organisms should you be thinking of?

A

Chlamydia and Mycoplasma

25
Q

At what size induration would a PPD be positive for an HIV patient?

A

5mm

26
Q

You suspect a pneumothorax. What instructions should go along with the order for a chest x-ray?

A

It should be an end expiratory view in order to look for visceral pleural air.

27
Q

List the three most commonly used medical treatments for COPD?

A

Oxygen, ipratropium and albuterol

28
Q

List 4 medications which may cause asthma.

A

Beta blockers, NSAIDS, ACEI, ASA

29
Q

Nodular opacities in the upper lung fields should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Silicosis

30
Q

What is the initial treatment for active TB?

A

INH+RIF+PZA+EMB x several months typically followed by INH+RIF once sensativities come back.

31
Q

Caseating granulomas should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

TB

32
Q

Blue bloater refers to the characteristic physical exam findings of what disease?

A

Chronic bronchitis

33
Q

A contralateral mediastinal shift should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Tension pneumothorax

34
Q

What is the best test to diagnose bronchiectasis?

A

CT

35
Q

What are the main side effects of isoniazid?

A

Hepatitis and peripheral neuropathy

36
Q

You are treating a patient for TB. He has noticed that his body fluids now have an orange tint. What drug is most likely causing this?

A

Rifampin

37
Q

Ethambutol has what two major side effects?

A

Optic neuritis, red green vision loss

38
Q

If you see a question with anything to do with rats and the patient has pneumonia, what organism should you be thinking of?

A

Yersinia pestis

39
Q

What is the most common organism causing pneumonia in COPD patients?

A

Haemophilus influenzae

40
Q

Where is a Pancoast tumor found on chest x-ray?

A

At the apex of either the right or left lung.

41
Q

Will evidence of TB be seen more frequently in the upper or lower lung lobes on CXR?

A

Upper

42
Q

A patient has pneumonia with rust colored sputum. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Strep pneumonia

43
Q

Coal miners lung often shows nodular opacities in what lung fields?

A

Upper lung fields

44
Q

When you step up the diagnosis from intermittent asthma to mild persistent asthma what medication should you add?

A

An inhaled steroid like fluticasone

45
Q

Any question about rabbits and pneumonia should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Tularemia

46
Q

Dullness to percusion should make you think of what diagonsis?

A

Lobar pneumonia

47
Q

A young child presents to ER and you see him waiting in tripod position. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Epiglottitis

48
Q

At what size induration would a PPD be positive for a healthcare worker?

A

10mm

49
Q

List six extrapulmonary complications of lung cancer.

A

SPHERE - SVC syndrome, Pancoast tumor, Horner’s syndrome, Endocrine problems, Recurrent laryngeal symptoms, Effusions (exudative).

50
Q

Currant jelly sputum should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Klebsiella pneumoniae

51
Q

What happens to total lung capacity in sarcoidosis?

A

It goes down

52
Q

What will the likely findings be on a CXR of a patient with asbestosis?

A

Linear opacities at the bases with pleural plaques.

53
Q

Tympany to percussion should make you think of what diagonsis?

A

Large pneuomthorax

54
Q

What are the three most common cancers to metastasize to the lungs?

A

Breast, liver and colon

55
Q

A thumbprint sign on x-ray should make you think of what two diagnoses?

A

Lateral C-spine = epiglottitis, abdominal = intestinal ischemia.

56
Q

A barrel chest should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Emphysema

57
Q

Are the lungs noisy or quiet in COPD?

A

Quiet

58
Q

List four indications for the flu vaccine.

A

Child 6-59 months, pregnant female, healthcare worker, age greater than 50.

59
Q

Post tussive rales should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

TB

60
Q

Parenchymal metastasis and blebs on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Emphysema

61
Q

Rhonci or wheezes that clear after coughing suggest what diagnosis?

A

Bronchitis or atelectasis

62
Q

Does FEV1 go up or down with asthma?

A

It goes down

63
Q

A very sick patient with diffuse infiltrates that spare the costophrenic angles should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Capatilise acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

64
Q

What is the most common cause of bronchiectasis?

A

Cystic Fibrosis

65
Q

What is the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis?

A

Sweat chloride test

66
Q

An exudative pleural effusion should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

TB, Lung cancer

67
Q

What is the treatment for epiglottitis?

A

2nd or 3rd generation cephalosporin (Ceftriaxone). Macrolides may also be used (clindamycin).

68
Q

Transudative pleural effusions should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Congestive heart failure

69
Q

What two lung cancers are typically found centrally on chest x-ray?

A

Small cell lung cancer and squamous cell

70
Q

What two lung cancers are typically found peripherally on chest x-ray?

A

Adenocarcinoma and Large cell

71
Q

Pertussis is most commonly treated with what antibiotic?

A

Erythromycin

72
Q

List the four most common lung cancer will metastasize to.

A

Bone, brain, adrenals and liver

73
Q

If you come across a question where the patient has erythema nodosum and an enlarged parotid gland what is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Sarcoidosis

74
Q

What is erythema nodosum?

A

Tender red nodules usually found on the shins.

75
Q

A thin looking heart and flattened diaphragm on CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Emphysema

76
Q

If you see a question with an alcoholic who has been diagnosed with pneumonia what is the most likely organism?

A

Klebsiella pneumoniae

77
Q

Honeycombing and tram tracks on the CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Bronchiectasis and idopathic pulmonary fibrosis

78
Q

Paradoxical pulses may be found in what pulmonary disorder?

A

Asthma

79
Q

An older patient presents with pneumonia and diarrhea. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Legionella pneumonia

80
Q

Eggshell opacities on the CXR should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Silicosis

81
Q

List three causes of decreased tactile fremitus.

A

COPD, Asthma, pleural effusion, pneumothorax

82
Q

Hyperresonance to percusion should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Emphysem, pneumothorax, asthma

83
Q

If you hear crackles in the lung fields list three pulmonary issues that should be in your differential.

A

Pneumonia, fibrosis, CHF, Bronchitis

84
Q

Does total lung capacity go up or down in COPD?

A

It goes up.

85
Q

List three things that should be in your differential if you hear wheezes on a lung exam?

A

Asthma, COPD, Bronchitis

86
Q

What is it called when a patient says “ee” but on auscultion you here “ay”?

A

Egophony

87
Q

A physical exam finding of egophony should make you think of what diagonsis?

A

Lobar pneumonia

88
Q

CXR shows vascular redistribution and blurred vascular outlines. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

CHF