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Flashcards in ENT Review Deck (36)
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1
Q

Acute sinusitis is most commonly caused by which two pathogens?

A

Strep pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae.

2
Q

Oral herpes is best treated with systemic or topical antivirals?

A

Topical is the first line. Systemic antivirals will help but are only indicated for severe cases.

3
Q

A patient presents with several episodes of vertigo over the past several weeks. He has had intermittent unilateral hearing loss and a “blowing” in his ears. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Meniere’s disease

4
Q

White oral lesion which cannot be scraped of should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Oral leukoplakia

5
Q

What type of hearing loss is associated with aging?

A

Sensory

6
Q

Which is the most commonly affected sinus in acute sinusitis?

A

Maxillary

7
Q

A patient presents with a hot potato or muffled voice. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Peritonsillar abscess

8
Q

What time frame are we talking about for chronic sinusitis?

A

> 3 months

9
Q

List the time of year when each of the following allergens is most prominent: pollen, grass, mold and ragweed.

A

Pollen tree and flower = spring, grasses are the summer, mold and ragweed are fall.

10
Q

How long should pressure be applied to treat epistaxis?

A

15 minutes

11
Q

List the four things that suggest group A beta hemolytic strep in a patient with pharyngitis.

A

Fever, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, no cough and an exudate in the throat.

12
Q

A child presenting with an erythematous sandpaper rash should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Scarlet fever

13
Q

In a patient with sensorineural hearing loss what will be the results of the Weber test?

A

Patient will hear the sound louder in the unaffected ear.

14
Q

List four complications of untreated strep throat.

A

Scarlet fever, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever and local abscess.

15
Q

A patient presents with round ulcer in her mouth that is yellow-grey with a red halo. It is on the buccal mucosa and it is painful. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Aphthous ulcers

16
Q

A patient presents drooling, with stridor and in tripod position. What is the diagnosis and how do you treat it?

A

You treat epiglottitis with a second or third generation cephalosporin like cefuroxime or ceftriaxone.

17
Q

White oral lesions which can be scraped off leaving punctate bleeding should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Oral candida

18
Q

What are three possible treatments for peritonsillar abscess?

A

Needle aspiration, I&D and tonsillectomy.

19
Q

What virus causes mumps?

A

Paramyxovirus

20
Q

How do you treat allergic rhinitis?

A

Intranasal corticosteroid and antihistamines.

21
Q

What is the treatment of choice for strep throat?

A

Penicllin, amoxicillin, erythromycin

22
Q

A Patient presents with unilateral hearing loss and a decrease in speech discrimination. She has also had difficulty with balance over the past week. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Acoustic neuroma

23
Q

Acute swelling and pain in the cheek that increases at meals. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Sialadenitis (salivary gland infection) - Staph aureus.

24
Q

When is watchful waiting with a diagnosis of acoustic neuroma an apropriate plan?

A

This tumor is very slow growing. Watching a small tumor in an elderly patient is apropriate treatment.

25
Q

What type of hearing loss would be caused by cerumen impaction?

A

Conductive

26
Q

How do you administer the Weber hearing test?

A

Tuning fork placed in the middle of the forehead.

27
Q

A 14 year old field hockey player presents with prominent adenopathy, white purple exudates in the throat and a palpable spleen. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Mononucleosis

28
Q

How do you administer the Rinne hearing test?

A

Place the tuning fork on the mastoid and then move it next to the ear.

29
Q

Describe the result of a Weber hearing test in a patient with conductive hearing loss.

A

Patient will report the sound louder in the affected ear.

30
Q

An x-ray of the skull reveals coalescence of mastoid air cells. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Mastoiditis

31
Q

After 7 days of sinusitis what antibiotic would you start?

A

Amoxicillin or bactrim

32
Q

A 45 year old female complains of feeling the ground rolling under her feet at times. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Vertigo

33
Q

A pateint with a history of smoking presents with a new onset hoarsness. This has been persistant for the past two weeks. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

34
Q

A patient presents with acute onset of continuous severe vertigo for the past five days. He does have a history of URI 2 weeks ago. What is the most likely diagnosis?

A

Labrynthitis

35
Q

What does Kiesselbach’s plexus refer to?

A

A group of vein’s in the anterior nose which bleed a lot.

36
Q

Small grouped vesicles on the vermillion border should make you think of what diagnosis?

A

Herpes