Flashcards in 29 Alternative Models of Intelligence Deck (28)
What are Howard Gardner's 7 intelligences posited in "Frames of Mind"?
1. Linguistic - language skills
5. Bodily-kinaesthetic - being able to use body well, like a dancer
6. Interpersonal - understanding others
7. Intrapersonal - understanding oneself
What two types of intelligence did Gardner add to his typology of 7 multiple intelligences in 1996?
8. Naturalist - ability to interact with nature
9. Existentialist - spiritual IQ - ability to understand ones place in grand scheme of things
Is Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences widely accepted by psychologists?
Nope. He comes from an education background.
Does Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences include g?
No, he says g permeates everything.
What are Gardner's 8 criteria for deeming an ability to be a type of intelligence?
1. Potential isolation by brain damage
2. Savants, prodigies – i.e. high splinter skill in one ability (Rainman)
3. Identifiable core set of operations – mechanisms unique to that intelligence
4. Distinctive developmental history - e.g. appears stage-wise, language first, then musical ability
5. Evolutionary plausibility
6. Support from psychological tasks - i.e. people good at one thing, not at other
7. Support from psychometrics - e.g., factor analysis
8. Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system - e.g., musical notation, writing, numbers
What are the three broad process domains in Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of intelligence?
1. Analytic/academic intelligence
2. Creative intelligence
3. Practical intelligence (common sense)
In Sternberg's Triarchic Theory, what is analytic/academic intelligence?
The ability to "think critically, analyse and evaluate ideas, solve problems, make decisions". (Relates to componential sub-theory)
In Sternberg's Triarchic Theory, what is creative intelligence?
Ability to "go beyond what is given to generate novel and interesting ideas". (Relates to experiential sub-theory).
In Sternberg's Triarchic Theory, what is practical intelligence?
Ability to "make solutions effective, solve real-world, everyday problems, implement ideas". (Relates to contextual sub-theory).
Which theorists apart from Sternberg include practical intelligence in their model?
No one. It's kinda his thing.
What does Sternberg have to say about IQ tests?
They're "convenient partial operationalisations of the construct of intelligence".
What is the basis of Sternberg's Triarchic Theory?
It comes from an information-processing approach (cognitive psych and specific task analyses) which examines the states and processes (components) that underlie intelligent thought.
What are the aspects of componential (analytic) sub-theory?
planning, monitoring, evaluation
Knowledge-acquisition components -
combination (does this new info change my idea of the subject?),
comparison (does new info trump old?)
- perceiving, generating, comparing
In componential (analytic) subtheory, intelligence is studied with respect to the _________ ________ of the individual
In componential (analytic) subtheory, intelligence is studied with respect to the internal world of the individual.
What is practical (contextual) sub-theory?
Ability to maximise fit between oneself and environment
Adaptation - to environment
Shaping - of environment
Selection - of environment
In contextual sub-theory intelligence is studied with respect to the ___________ __________ of the individual
In contextual sub-theory intelligence is studied with respect to the external world of the individual.
What is experiential (creative) sub-theory?
Intelligence measured by processes that involve novel tasks or those in process of becoming automatised.
Ability to deal with novelty
Automatisation (making complex tasks automatic)
In experiential (creative) sub-theory intelligence is studied with respect to _______________
In experiential (creative) sub-theory intelligence is studied with respect to experience.
What is successful intelligence, selon Sternberg?
The ability to achieve success in life (whatever you think that is) in order to
adapt to, shape and select environments
via recognition of and capitalisation on strengths and compensation for weeknesses
through a balance of analytical, creative and practical abilities.
How can practical intelligence be measured?
With tacit knowledge tests.
What is tacit knowledge?
Highly context-specific knowledge that is instrumental to attaining personal goals. Takes the form of procedural knowledge in IF... THEN... statements. (e.g., If the boss was beaten at golf, then...)
What is the correlation between tacit knowledge and managerial success?
r = .34 with company level
r = .46 with salary
What are the 3 contents and 4 operations of the Berlin Model of Intelligence Structure (BIS)?
12 abilities in total
What test is based on the BIS?
The IST (Intelligence Structure Test)
How many facets are there in Guilford's slightly epic Structure of the Intellect model?
3 - Contents, Products and Operations
So, urgh, describe the three facets of Guilford's structure of the intellect model?
Contents: classification according to the content of the test stimuli:
Products: the form of the information presented
Operations: cognitive process required by the task
"Remembering seeing the dog" would require which content, product and operation in Guilford's SOI model?
Content = Visual (seeing)
Product = Unit (the dog)
Operation = Memory (remembering)