Flashcards in 9 Albert Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory 1 Deck (15):
Bandura born when?
1925. It still lives! It BREATHES!
What element did Bandura add to the understanding of conditioning?
The cognitive element - he argued the effects of contingent rewards and punishments are cognitively mediated.
What are the three elements of Bandura's tripartite model of learning?
Behaviour, environment, cognition
In what crucial way does Bandura's theory of learning differ from that of Skinner's?
Bandura argues that all learning is cognitively mediated and not an inevitable consequence of environment alone. Reinforcement does not occur without prior cognition.
What is vicarious learning?
Behaviour shaped by observing other peoples' behaviour and its consequences for them.
What is reciprocal determinism?
The idea that behaviour (and/or personality) is moulded by the reciprocal interaction of personal factors (especially cognition), environmental events and our behaviour.
How could Bandura's tripartite model explain a phenomenon such as exam results?
Exam difficulty (environment) is influenced by behaviour (amount of study) and cognition (self-efficacy)
Amount of study (behaviour) is influenced by cognition (self-efficacy) and exam difficulty (environment)
Cognition (self-efficacy) is influenced by exam difficulty (environment) and cognition (self-efficacy)
What factors determine whether we will learn from a model?
1. Characteristics of the model: most likely to model high status individuals, competent individuals, and powerful people
2. The characteristics of the observer: people who lack status, skill or power are most likely to model i.e., children and novices
3. Consequences of behaviour: the greater the value that the observer places on the behaviour, the more likely that the behaviour will be learned
What are the four steps of Bandura's model of observational model?
1. Attend to the model
2. Remember what is seen and heard
3. Reproduce the memory during imitation
4. Motivation because of Reinforcement of accurate performance of the observed behaviour
How can it be demonstrated that observational learning has occurred?
The imitated action must consist of a newly organised pattern of behavioural responses not previously in the observer’s repertoire.
In the Bobo doll experiment, how did aggressive modelling change children's behaviour (outside their attitude to the Bobo doll)?
Children exposed to aggressive modelling were more interested in the guns in the playroom.
In the Bobo Doll experiment, how did the number of aggressive acts differ over type of media (live; videotape; cartoon; control)?
Most aggressive acts for live, followed by video, cartoon and then control. But still a significant increase against control for three treatment conditions.
What did Paik and Comstock conclude from their metaanalysis of over 200 studies completed from 1957-2000.
They found that 10 viewers out 100 would be affected by the violence they see on TV or film. (They didn't include all of Bandura's criteria for observational learning. So they overincluded in metaanalysis.)
How did Bandura and McDonald (1969) demonstrate that moral judgements are socially learnt?
5-to-11-year children at high and low levels of moral judgment exposed to adult models showed a substantial change in their moral judgement level. This change in moral judgement persisted (2 weeks later) when the adult model was no longer present.