Flashcards in 37 Sex differences in Intelligence Deck (19)
What's the difference between a narrative review and a metaanalysis?
Narrative review – collect all papers related to research question – eyeball all papers and say what they say. Qualitative summary.
Metaanalysis – convert all results into the same metric.
What did Lynn and Irwing conclude in their 2004 metaanalysis of sex differences on Raven's Progressive Matrices?
Males are better than females. Males are the best. Girls suck!!!
<15 years - no difference
15-19 - 2 IQ points greater
Undergrads - Males 3-5 IQ points greater
Adults - Males 5 IQ points greater
Greatest difference is in adults, d = .3
What are the differences in individual abilities between men and women?
Women better at spelling (d= .45) and language (d=.4)
Men better at spatial perception (d=.44), mental rotation (d=.65) and mechanical reasoning (d=.76).
How has the gender gap in g been explained by differences in spatial ability?
Raven's (the g measure) test spatial ability as well as general reasoning. When spatial ability controlled for, gender gap disappears.
How can tests of gender differences in intelligence have been confounded by convenience samples?
Lots of testing in the army (not many females; those that are not typical) and Psych undergrad (not many males; not typical). This is clearly not a standard gender composition.
How might tests be disguising gender differences?
Tests are intentionally constructed so that men and women score equally. Items that create gender differences are removed. So zero difference may be created by the test.
How does the distribution of male and female IQ vary?
On the WAIS, men have a higher SD (15.3) than women (14.5).
What three hypotheses have been posited to explain gender differences in spatial ability?
1. The male foraging hypothesis
- Men who navigate land well and throw weapons have better selective value
2. Range hypothesis
- Men who navigate environments better can seek out more mates
3. Warfare hypothesis
- Men good at warfare, which involves negotiating landscapes and throwing stuff, are more likely to survive
What can meadow voles tell us about differences in spatial abilities?
Meadow voles – males better than females at spatial tasks. Other voles – prairie etc. – no difference.
How might differences in lateralization account for male superiority in spatial ability?
Women tend to use both sides of brain to solve mental rotation tasks, men use only one side, which is more neurally efficient.
How do men and women differ in route-learning strategies?
Males use distance and cardinal (compass points) directions
Females use landmarks and relative directions (left, right)
What do testosterone levels predict in route-learning in males?
Testosterone levels in males are positively correlated with male-biased (i.e. distance and cardinal) route-learning strategies.
How might hormones cause sex differences in spatial abilities?
Testosterone levels in males predicted performance in mental rotation tasks.
How do men and women differ in self-reported abilities?
- Men tend to self-report intelligence as higher than women do.
- Men see strengths in logical and spatial abilities.
- Women see their strengths in language and personal intelligence.
How does toy choice differ in infants?
From 9 months, boys want trucks, girls want dolls and animals.
What environmental factors might account for gender differences in abilities?
Boys given more freedom to explore, and play more sports and computer games.
Girls play with dolls, develop verbal skills.
What happens if you train girls on a spatial ability computer game?
Gender gap is all but eliminated.
How might educational choices explain gender differences in abilities?
Girls may not favour male-stereotyped subjects such as maths and science.