Flashcards in 31 Emotional Intelligence Deck (16)
What was the early definition of Emotional Intelligence (Mayer, DiPaolo & Salovey, 1990)?
"The ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions".
When did Emotional Intelligence enter the popular media?
With Daniel Goleman's book "Emotional Intelligence" in 1995
What are the two kinds of emotional intelligence?
1. Trait Emotional Intelligence (aka self-report or mixed models EI)
E.g., "I know why my emotions change" 1-5 Likert
- Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i)
- Goleman's EI model
2. Performance-based Emotional Intelligence (aka ability-based EI)
E.g., "Which emotions are expressed by this face?"
- Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI Scale (MSCEIT)
What are the distinctive features of trait EI tests?
Psychometrically sound self-report tests, quick and easy
High correlations with Big 5 (+ with E, - with N)
Transparent items that are easily faked
Vastly outnumber ability models
What are the distinctive features of ability EI tests?
Ability scales with right and wrong answers.
Correlate with Gc, not with Big 5
Time-consuming to administer, and some measurement problems
Cannot be faked
What are the 5 components of Reuven Bar-On's EQ-i?
1. Intrapersonal abilities
Emotional self-awareness etc.
"It's fairly easy for me to express my feelings"
2. Interpersonal abilities
Empathy, social responsibility
"My close relationships mean a lot to me and my friends"
Problem-solving, reality testing
"In handling situations that arise, I try to think of as many approaches as I can"
4. Stress management
Stress tolerance, impulse control
"It's a problem controlling my anger"
5. General mood
"I am satisfied with my life"
Has Bar-On's five-factor model been supported by factor analysis?
Nope, but he didn't change the model - said other factors were "facilitators". Dubious.
What are Goleman's four clusters of emotional competency?
Self + Awareness – Self-awareness
Self + Management – Self-management
Other + Awareness – Social awareness
Other + Management – Social skills
How has Goleman's four-cluster model fared against the evidence?
No one's really looked at it in peer-reviewed journals.
How do measures of trait emotional intelligence overlap with personality?
Highly. The EQi scale has r of .4 with E and -.62 with N.
What term describes the sharing between EQ and personality of item content and thus high intercorrelation?
Describe the performance-based model of EI posited by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso in the early 1990s.
The four-branch hierarchical model of EI.
Strategic Emotional Intelligence
iv) MANAGEMENT - ability to manage emotions in self and others
iii) UNDERSTANDING emotions - labelling emotions, understanding complex feelings
Experiential Emotional Intelligence
ii) ASSIMILATION of emotions in thought - recognise how mood impacts thinking, generate emotions when required etc.
i) PERCEPTION and expression of emotion - read facial expressions etc.
This is a hierarchical model, so the top depends on the bottom.
What 2 tests relate to the four-branch model?
1. MSCEIT (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI Test)
2. MEIS (Multi-factor EI Scale)
What are the three ways in which performance-based EI tests can be scored?
1. Consensus scoring
Large sample takes test. If 36% of sample choose 4 for an item, choosing that item will give score of .36
2. Expert scoring
Same as consensus but with group of experts
3. Target scoring
The target of the item stimuli (person smiling) decides the correct answer
How does the four-branch EI model correlate with intelligence?
More with Gc than Gf. Only non-trivial correlation is between Understanding emotion and Gc of .4