Flashcards in 33 Environmental influences on intelligence Deck (25)
What is the size of the Flynn Effect?
3 points per decade approx. But faster in some countries than others, and for fluid intelligence than crystallised.
What did Cahan and Cohen demonstrate about the effect of schooling on IQ?
If kids in same grade – those older higher on IQ than those younger
If kids same age in different years – those in higher years score higher
What kind of intelligence does schooling appear to impact more?
Larger impact on verbal tests (Gc) than on Gf tests
How much IQ is lost per year delay of starting school?
About 5 IQ points per year.
What happens to IQ in summer holidays?
It drops off, more for children for low-SES homes.
When do you start school in NSW?
If 5 can start before July 1, must start by 6th birthday.
What did AJ Martin (2009) demonstrate to be the 5 long-term effects of starting school early?
Late starters showed lower:
1. homework completion
2. literacy/numeracy test performance
3. positive educational intentions (likes school)
4. enjoyment of school
DESPITE initial advantages of being bigger and more capable than cohort
What are the confounds in AJ Martin's study of late starters?
No random allocation. It may be that difficult – ADHD, hyperactive, slow – kids may be the ones who start late.
What reasons did Flynn give for the Flynn Effect?
- Technological revolution: TV, computers,
- Changes in child-rearing. Seen-but-not-heard has given way to interactive parenting style. And parents more aware of providing stimulating materials to children.
What is the Head Start program?
Enriched pre-school program (vocab, numeracy, writing) for disadvantaged children started in the 1960s as part of Lyndon Johnson's "war on poverty"
Why did Jensen argue that Head Start has failed?
Despite initial increases in IQ of 7-8 points, these decrease to nil after 2-3 years.
What non-IQ effects of Head Start have been found?
Less likely to:
need special education
More likely to:
graduate from high school
have higher earnings in 20s
younger siblings also gain advantages
What is the effect of iodine deficiency on intelligence?
Chinese children who received iodine supplements have an IQ advantage of 12.5. But they were probably kinda deprived.
Does omega 3 (fish oil) increase intelligence?
Studies are inconsistent. Omega 3s on their own may not improve, but amount of fish eaten does [may be confounded by SES]
Do vitamin supplements boost IQ?
Benton & Roberts (1988) showed supplements improve IQ by 9 points. Never replicated – probably type I error.
What effect does supplementation have on IQ in normal population?
Probably none. Supplements appear to increase IQ in the deprived.
What effect does breastfeeding have on IQ?
On average 3.16 points higher; 2.66 for healthy weight babies; 5.18 for underweight. But another study showed no effect.
What did the Belarus breastfeeding study show?
It worked! 7.5 advantage on verbal, 2.9 on performance; 5.9 IQ difference overall. But confounded: the breastfeeding intervention also included other factors – more skin-on-skin contact; breastfeeding groups.
What did Sir Francis Galton conclude about birth order?
Of 99 subjects, 48% were firstborn son.
What other evidence is there for birth order effects?
First borns are over-represented among Nobel prize winners, classical composers, prominent psychologists
What's Sulloway's "Born to Rebel" argument?
Later-born children are over-represented in revolutionary leaders / paradigm-breaking scientists.
What did the Netherlands military service tests demonstrate?
A clear positive relationship between birth order and intelligence, and...
Negative correlation between family size and intelligence.
What evidence disproves the antibody theory of birth order IQ effect?
That second-born children in families in which the first-born has died score just as highly on IQ.
What two explanations of the first-born IQ effect are there?
Resource dilution model - first child gets 100% parental resources; second child 50%, third 33% etc.
Confluence model - first-borns have some undiluted parental time. First-borns take care of youngers and develop abilities through teaching. First-borns spend more time listening to adults; later-borns spend more time listening to children