2nd and 3rd Trimester Complications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd and 3rd Trimester Complications Deck (25):
1

TORCH infections

Toxoplasmosis, Other (symphilis, parvovirus B19), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus

2

dx: infection transferred to fetus by pregnant mom who has pet cat

toxoplasmosis

3

clinical presentations of toxoplasmosis during first, second, and third trimesters

first: death
second: classic triad of hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and chorioretinitis
third: asymptomatic

4

diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

IgM and IgG titers (maternal), PCR of amniotic fluid (fetal)

5

dx: ultrasound shows baby with hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications,

toxoplasmosis

6

ddx: fetal infection leading to hydrops fetalis

syphilis (treponema pallidum), parvovirus B19

7

dx: transmitted by sexual contact, gram negative spirochete

syphilis (treponema pallidum)

8

clinical presentation of parvovirus B19

anemia, acute myocarditis, edema/hydrops getalis, intrauterine fetal demise

9

dx: fetal infection causing anemia, acute myocarditis

parvovirus B19

10

parvovirus B19: what kind of virus?

ssDNA virus

11

rubella: what kind of virus?

togavirus (RNA virus)

12

dx: fetal infection causing deafness, cataracts, patent ductus arteriosus, microcephaly

rubella

13

CMV: what kind of virus?

dsDNA virus (herpes family)

14

dx: fetal infection causing periventricular calcifications, hearing loss

CMV

15

CMV: histology

enlarged cells that have dense "owl's eye" basophilic inclusion within the nucleus

16

what are the 3 major 2nd trimester complications of pregnancy?

fetal infections (TORCH), cervical insufficiency, fetal anomalies

17

what does ferning on microscopy of the vaginal fluid indicate?

preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)

18

risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)

preterm labor, short cervix, advanced cervical dilation

19

placenta previa: risk factors

smoking, advanced maternal age, multiple gestation, uterine anomalies, scarring from previous pregnancies

20

placenta accreta: what is it, what does it increase risk for?

placental implantation that extends into the basal zone of the endometrium --> increased difficulty of removing the entire placenta during delivery
increases risk for hemorrhage and hysterectomy after delivery

21

placenta increta: what is it

placental implantation that extends into myometrium

22

placenta percreta: what is it, risk factors

placental implantation that extends into uterine serosa or adjacent organs; multiple C-sections, placenta previa

23

placental abruption: placental separation due to hemorrhage into ______ before birth

decidua basalis

24

dx: vaginal bleeding in third trimester, uterine tenderness, painful contractions, no fetal heart tones

placental abruption

25

velamentous cord insertion: what is it

umbilical cord attached to the chorion and amnion rather than the placenta --> umbilical vessels continue onto the placenta between the two membranes --> vessels may easily be torn