Flashcards in 2nd and 3rd Trimester Complications Deck (25):
Toxoplasmosis, Other (symphilis, parvovirus B19), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus
dx: infection transferred to fetus by pregnant mom who has pet cat
clinical presentations of toxoplasmosis during first, second, and third trimesters
second: classic triad of hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and chorioretinitis
diagnosis of toxoplasmosis
IgM and IgG titers (maternal), PCR of amniotic fluid (fetal)
dx: ultrasound shows baby with hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications,
ddx: fetal infection leading to hydrops fetalis
syphilis (treponema pallidum), parvovirus B19
dx: transmitted by sexual contact, gram negative spirochete
syphilis (treponema pallidum)
clinical presentation of parvovirus B19
anemia, acute myocarditis, edema/hydrops getalis, intrauterine fetal demise
dx: fetal infection causing anemia, acute myocarditis
parvovirus B19: what kind of virus?
rubella: what kind of virus?
togavirus (RNA virus)
dx: fetal infection causing deafness, cataracts, patent ductus arteriosus, microcephaly
CMV: what kind of virus?
dsDNA virus (herpes family)
dx: fetal infection causing periventricular calcifications, hearing loss
enlarged cells that have dense "owl's eye" basophilic inclusion within the nucleus
what are the 3 major 2nd trimester complications of pregnancy?
fetal infections (TORCH), cervical insufficiency, fetal anomalies
what does ferning on microscopy of the vaginal fluid indicate?
preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)
risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM)
preterm labor, short cervix, advanced cervical dilation
placenta previa: risk factors
smoking, advanced maternal age, multiple gestation, uterine anomalies, scarring from previous pregnancies
placenta accreta: what is it, what does it increase risk for?
placental implantation that extends into the basal zone of the endometrium --> increased difficulty of removing the entire placenta during delivery
increases risk for hemorrhage and hysterectomy after delivery
placenta increta: what is it
placental implantation that extends into myometrium
placenta percreta: what is it, risk factors
placental implantation that extends into uterine serosa or adjacent organs; multiple C-sections, placenta previa
placental abruption: placental separation due to hemorrhage into ______ before birth
dx: vaginal bleeding in third trimester, uterine tenderness, painful contractions, no fetal heart tones