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Flashcards in 3 - Pulmonary function Deck (25):
1

Explain inspiration at rest

Lower pressure in lungs Diaphragm contracts & flattens Intercostal muscles contract. Rib cage lifts up and out. Increase thoracic cavity. Active process

2

Explain expiration at rest

Passive process External intercostal muscles relax. Diaphragm relaxes and returns dome shaped. Ribs come in and down. Thoracic cavity decreases. Pressure increases

3

Explain inspiration in exercise

Sternocleidomastoid contracts to lift the sternum. The scalene and pectoralis minor lift the ribs further. Thoracic cavity increases

4

Explain expiration in exercise

More active Internal intercostal muscles contract to pull the rib cage in and down. Abdominals contract to push the diaphragm up. Rapid reduction of the thoracic cavity

5

What is tidal volume

The amount of air breathed in or out per breath

6

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

Max amount of air that is forcibly inspired in addition to tidal volume

7

Explain expiratory reserve volume

Max amount of air that can be forcibly expired in addition to tidal volume

8

What is vital capacity?

Max amount of air exhaled after a max inspiration

9

What is residual volume?

The amount of air left in the lungs after maximal expiration

10

What is total lung capacity?

Vital capacity plus residual volume

11

What is minute ventilation?

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute

12

How do you calculate minute ventilation?

Frequency of breathing x tidal volume

13

How do you calculate vital capacity?

Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume

14

How to calculate total lung capacity?

Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

15

Where does gaseous exchange happen?

Alveoli and muscle site

16

Explain why gaseous exchange happens?

The partial pressure/concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide difference The partial pressures want to be equal

17

State and describe the process of how gases move through the lungs and capillaries

Diffusion - The movement of gas molecules from an area of high concentration/partial pressure to a low area of concentration/ partial pressure

18

What makes diffusion efficient

Permeable of the alveoli and capillary walls Short distance Readiness of haemoglobin to combine with oxygen Large surface area of alveoli Slow movement of blood through capillaries

19

What controlled the rate and depth of breathing and where is it?

Respiratory centre Medulla oblongata

20

What are the chemical changes that cause a change in breathing depth and rate during exercise?

Increase in carbon dioxide Increase in lactic acid

21

How is carbon dioxide transported and what %

5% in blood plasma 20% combined with haemoglobin 60-80% combines with water to make bicarbonate.

22

What detects changes in blood acidity

Chemoreceptors

23

What detects change in blood pressure

Baroreceptors

24

Describe how the body increases breathing rate and depth

Chemoreceptors detect a higher blood acidity, meaning there's more carbon dioxide in the blood, a message is sent to the medulla oblongata and the respiratory centre, the message is sent down the sympathetic nerve back to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract

25

Describe a spirometer trace and its labels.

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