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Flashcards in 8 - Information processing Deck (29):

Describe the input stage of information processing, and where the information if coming from.

Seeing/ hearing/ feeling all the things that are going on around . It could be coming from the crowd, the opponents etc. Where the inflammation is coming from is called the display. (The environment that provides all the information)


What is selective attention?

When you focus on the relevant information from the display.


Describe the perception part of information processing.

The process if acquiring, interpreting, selecting and organising sensory information.


What is proprioception, and its components?

Body awareness, it has 3 components, touch, equilibrium, kinaesthesis.


Describe the components of proprioception

Touch - Detects pain, pressure, temperature.
Equilibrium - Balance, tipping turning
Kinesthesis - a sense that tells the brain about the movement of the muscles, tendons and joints


What is the DCR process?

Detection - the process of the registering of the stimuli by the sense organ

Comparison - the process of referring the stimulus to the memory to compare it to previously stores stimuli

Recognition- the process of finding corresponding stimuli in the memory


Name the 3 memory stores

Short term sensory store (STSS)
Short term memory (STM)
Long term memory (LTM)


What are the processes within the memory and describe them

Encoding - storing new information by repeating it
Maintenance - keeping it 'alive'
Retrieval - finding coded information


Describe the short term memory

Hold information for 60 seconds
Holds 5-9 pieces
If the information isn't needed its is replaced in 30 seconds
Holds information from the STSS that is important
Retrieves info from LTM to perform movement


What are ways to improve short term memory?

Chunking - storing groups of information as one piece
Chaining - simplifying actions into smaller links


How should a coach make sure information has gone into the short term memory?

Be brief
To the point
Make sure attention is being given


What influences the retention and retrieval of information shorted in the long term memory?

Speed of learning (quicker is better)
Overlearning the skill


Describe the long term memory

Short term memories are either stores in long term memory or lost
Limitless capacity
Can be stored for years possibly forever


What are the strategies to improve memory?

Chaining - simplifying an action by reducing it into smaller links in a chain of events

Mental rehearsal - 'running through' a performance in your mind


How do you make mental rehearsal effective?

Create a mental image using all the sense
See yourself through your 'minds eye'
Evaluate the movements and consequences


What is select response/ response selection?

Deciding how to respond
Choosing a motor programme


What is reaction time (in memory)

The time to make a decision


What is movement time?

The time from the start of the response to the end


What is response time and how do you calculate it?

The time from the start f the stimulus to the end of the response.

Reaction time + movement time


What is choice reaction time?

The time taken between stimulus and action that requires a choice

EG) in basketball deciding whether to pass or dribble


What is simple reaction time?

The time taken to start a single response to a single stimulus


What is Hicks Law?

The theory that the more choices there are the slower the reaction time will be


What is temporal anticipation?

A performer guesses what is about to happen


What is spatial anticipation?

When a player guesses a movement will be needed


Describe the psychological refractory period

This is when sports performers use dummy's/fakes.
The opposition sees the player move one way so the brain processes this and moves to block them. While the brain is processing it the player dodges in the other direction. Although the brain has picked up the second stimulus it has to finish processing the first (the dummy) before being able to process the actual movement


What are motor programmes?

A series of muscle contractions that produce a movement, that is stored in the LTM


What are subroutines?

Separate movements that make up a whole skill


How to improve selective attention?

Make the stimulus more intense
Expressions like 'watch the ball', 'look when I place my feet'
Mental rehearsal
Repetition with various distraction


Why do skills break down for beginners?

Lack of experience
Lack of selective attention
Limited range of responses, can't adapt to all situations
Unable to focus/concentration
Lack in fitness
Lack in anticipation