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Flashcards in 9 - Learning and performance Deck (34):

Define motivation

Internal and external pressures that direct an individual towards a goal.


State and describe the types of motivation

Intrinsic - The drive from within to succeed Extrinsic - Drive from outside the player to gain tangible and intangible rewards.


Define learning

A permanent or semi permanent change in behaviour as a result of teaching, coaching or practice


Give example of tangible rewards, and which type of motivation does it link to?

Medals, money, trophies - Extrinsic


Give examples of intangible awards, and which type of motivation does it link to?

National pride Self-worth Satisfaction sense of accomplishment Intrinsic


Whats wrong with extrinsic/tangible rewards?

Lose their power (money to a footballer who earns millions)
Lose enjoyment of the sport (only in it for the rewards)


Define Operant Conditioning

Manipulating behaviour to shape the correct response through reinforcement and strengthen the S-R bond


State and describe the types of reinforcement

Positive - eg praise
Negative - criticising the performer Punishment - eg detention


Limitation of operant conditioning?

Learner has lack of understanding (motivation)
Trial and error learning leads to bad technique
Learner may not know to to respond in all situations It implies every single skill needs a separate S-R bond
Learners don't react well to negative reinforcement


Name the cognitive learning theories

Adams closed loop Schmidt's schema
Insight learning


Describe Adams loop theory

Movement is initiated by the memory trace.
The memory trace of the motor programme is stored in the LTM, and developed by experience or external feedback.
Once initiated , movement is controlled by perceptual trace.
This trace uses feedback to refine and eliminate errors.
The perceptual trace acts as an ongoing comparison to the memory trace.
If there is a mismatch between the 2 traces the performer attempts to correct it.
Therefore the process become about eliminating errors.


Describe Schmidt's schema

There are 2 schemas, recall and recognition.
The first is the recall schema -
- This is made up of: Initial conditions - knowledge of the environment, body position, limb position and muscle tension.
- Response specification- the motor programme,action, speed, force, timing, and the movement objective

The second schema is called the Recognition schema, this is made up of:
- Sensory consequence - The internal feedback we receive as we undertake the movement ( knowledge of performance)
- Response Outcome - The result of the movement compare to the objective. (knowledge of results)


Describe Insight learning

In insight learning the learner gets a sudden insight into the skill as a whole, and a dramatic improvement in performance
The learner 'Gets the knack'
Develop their own understanding and way of performing the skill
EG cycling


Define social learning theories

Learning by copying others because we wish to be accepted


What is observational learning?

Learning a skill by copying or modelling ourselves on another person.


State and describe the stages of observational learning

Attention - a performer must attend a demo and pay attention to it Retention - the performer needs to retain the information given in the demo. Making a mental image Motor Production - The learner must be at the skill level where they can actually perform the skill


Explain the factors that can influence the EFFECTIVENESS of attention, retention and motor production in observational learning

- How attractive the demo is. Role model is used
- Demo can be seen
- Can the observer remember the skill?
- Demo is meaningful - use mental rehearsal
- Performer has the physical ability to complete skill
- Immediate opportunity to practice skill


Explain how attention, retention, motor production and motivation are used to HELP the process of learning a skill

A - Learning is watching, demo is attractive and accurate
R - Learner can describe what to do for the skill, mental rehearsal
MP - Learner has ability to reproduce the skill and practice
M - Reinforcement and learner willing to put in the practice


Name the 3 stages of learning



Describe the stages of learning

COGNITIVE - Still trying to understand the demand of the skill
- Mental image is needed
- Learner needs to give all their attention
-Many errors
- Feedback must be terminal
ASSOCIATIVE - Fewer mistakes
- Rapid improvement
-Can use more intrinsic feedback
- can compare to mental image
- Can practice the skill under many situations AUTONOMOUS
-Less rapid improvement
-High quality and smoothness
-Less conscious attention
-Can understand and use tactics
- Can analysis their own performance
- Progress can only occur on fine details


Name the types of feedback and describe them

Intrinsic - comes from within the player
Extrinsic - comes from a coach/teacher/ teammates

Positive - praise
Negative - criticism

Terminal - feedback given after the performance
Concurrent - feedback given during the performance

Knowledge of performance - feedback on how the skill was performed
Knowledge of results - feedback on the outcome of the skill


What type of feedback should a cognitive learner get?

Positive Terminal External Knowledge of results


What feedback is suitable for autonomous learners get?

Negative Concurrent Internal/ intrinsic Knowledge of performance


What are learning plateaus, how do they occur?

When the learner stops progressing
- Learner is physically not ready to progress
- Lacks ability to develop
- Earlier skills have faulty technique
- Needs a new mental model if is a very complex skill
- Too complex for the learner
- Boredom
- Lack of motivation
- Poor coaching
- Lacking the level of fitness to progress


How do you overcome learning plateau?

- Ensure the learner is ready
- Reset the goal to an achievable level
- Avoid fatigue and boredom by allowing breaks
- Break the skill down into parts
- Allows time for mental rehearsal
- Generate motivation by providing rewards or opponents
- Give correct feedback
- Make practise enjoyable


What does transfer of learning mean?

The application of a previous experience to present learning


State and describe the types of transfer of learning.

Positive - the previously leaner skill is beneficial to the skill currently being learnt. ( EG Tennis serve and javelin)
Negative - the previously leaner skill is not beneficial to the skill currently being learnt.

Zero- no effect. No similarities between skills Bilateral - the skill is transferred from one limb to another (A footballer using their non-dominant foot)

Proactive - the skill being learnt will have effects on skills learnt in the future
Retro active - he skill being learnt will have effects on previously learnt skills ( practising the drive will help the defensive shot in cricket)


State and describe the types of guidance.

Visual- demos or videos
Verbal - cue words, phrases
Manual - being physically moved into the position (kinaesthetic feel)
Mechanical - use of technology or machinery (EG use of ropes when doing a summersault on trampolines)


Describe the S-Shape performance curve

Frequent period of improvement then no improvement, regardless of the amount of practice


Describe the Positive performance curve

Progression is slow at the beginning but rapidly improves


Describe a Negative performance curve

Rapid improvement at the beginning, but slows down and can eventually stop


Describe the Linear performance curve

Improvement is on a steady, constant rate


Use the ‘single channel hypothesis’ to explain why there is a delayed response by a player in tennis when their opponent’s shot hits the top of the net and changes direction.

Single channel hypothesis – one stimulus processed at a time

Second stimulus arrives before first response can be completed

Cannot deal with second stimulus/ response until finished with first stimulus/response

There is a slower/longer response/ reaction time

Psychological Refractory Period

Player reacts too late/rushed shot/unforced error/egs/cannot return/opponent wins/player loses point


What other factors should a coach consider for a demonstration to be effective?

- Accurate demo
- Frequent practice
- Practice straight after demo
- Highlight cues
_ Emphasise need to feel correct movements
- Use mental rehearsal
- Transfer from previously learnt skill
- Fun
- Demo by role model
- Repetition for complex skills