30 - Glaucoma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 30 - Glaucoma Deck (22):
1

Main modifiable goal of glaucoma?

lower IOP

2

What are some drugs that may cause or worsen glaucoma?

-corticosteroids (common) - all routes
-antimuscarinics (rare) - antiistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, antispasmodics
-topiramate (anticonvulsant) has been associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma
-use of oral contraceptives x 3-5 years may be associated with a higher prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma

3

non-pharms

-aerobic exercise can decrease IOP modestly
-laser or surgical procedures may be necessary

4

What BBs can be used for glaucoma?

betaxolol, levobunolol, timolol

5

How do BBs decrease IOP?

decrease IOP by inhibiting formation of the aqueous humour

6

What BB is relatively beta 1 specific and good for people with lung problems?

betaxolol

7

Brinzolamide and dorzolamide are examples of what?

topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

8

How do the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease IOP?

inhibit an enzyme involved in the formation of aqueous humor

9

List the prostaglandin analogues

latanaprost, travoprost, bimatoprost

10

Prostaglandin analogues are slightly more effective than what other class?

non-selective BBs

11

latanoprost and travoprost work through what pathway

uveoscleral pathway

12

bimatoprost works through what pathways

uveoscleral and trabecular pathways

13

s/e of prostaglandin analogues

-can darken brown-colored irides
-lengthen eyelashes
-cause mild conjunctival hyperemia

14

brimonidine is an example of what?

alpha 2 agonist

15

How does brimonidine (alpha 2 agonist) work?

Suppresses formation of aqueous humor and may increase uveoscleral outflow. Used for both open and closed glaucoma

16

How does cholinergic agonist (such as pilocarpine) work?

contracts ciliary muscle and icnreases trabecular outflow

17

s/e of cholinergic agonists?

mioisis, spasm, brow ache

18

How do oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work (acetazolamide, methazolamide) ?

lower IOP by decreasing production of aqueous humor

*normally reserved for emergencies bc of significant s/e

19

Avoid what drug if you have a sulfa allergy?

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

20

Most common preservative

benzalkonium chloride

21

Brimonidine is now available with a preservative called ____

purite

22

Wait how long before putting contact lenses in after drops?

15 mins

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