Flashcards in 30 - Glaucoma Deck (22):
Main modifiable goal of glaucoma?
What are some drugs that may cause or worsen glaucoma?
-corticosteroids (common) - all routes
-antimuscarinics (rare) - antiistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, antispasmodics
-topiramate (anticonvulsant) has been associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma
-use of oral contraceptives x 3-5 years may be associated with a higher prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma
-aerobic exercise can decrease IOP modestly
-laser or surgical procedures may be necessary
What BBs can be used for glaucoma?
betaxolol, levobunolol, timolol
How do BBs decrease IOP?
decrease IOP by inhibiting formation of the aqueous humour
What BB is relatively beta 1 specific and good for people with lung problems?
Brinzolamide and dorzolamide are examples of what?
topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
How do the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease IOP?
inhibit an enzyme involved in the formation of aqueous humor
List the prostaglandin analogues
latanaprost, travoprost, bimatoprost
Prostaglandin analogues are slightly more effective than what other class?
latanoprost and travoprost work through what pathway
bimatoprost works through what pathways
uveoscleral and trabecular pathways
s/e of prostaglandin analogues
-can darken brown-colored irides
-cause mild conjunctival hyperemia
brimonidine is an example of what?
alpha 2 agonist
How does brimonidine (alpha 2 agonist) work?
Suppresses formation of aqueous humor and may increase uveoscleral outflow. Used for both open and closed glaucoma
How does cholinergic agonist (such as pilocarpine) work?
contracts ciliary muscle and icnreases trabecular outflow
s/e of cholinergic agonists?
mioisis, spasm, brow ache
How do oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work (acetazolamide, methazolamide) ?
lower IOP by decreasing production of aqueous humor
*normally reserved for emergencies bc of significant s/e
Avoid what drug if you have a sulfa allergy?
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Most common preservative
Brimonidine is now available with a preservative called ____