32. Alcohol and Tobacco Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 32. Alcohol and Tobacco Deck (18)
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How does smoking interact with the reward system?

Nicotine binds to the nicotonic acetylcholine receptors in the CNS, primarily in the ventral tegmental area.
Nicotine binding to receptors in the VTA results in a release of dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens (linked to reward)


in the US, smoking is responsible for what % of cancer deaths? what % of COPD/emphysema deaths?

30% cancer
80% COPD/emphy


besides emphysema/cancer, other bad outcomes from smoking?

vascular disease, arterial narrowing, venous stasis/ulcers, strokes


what is the process of malting/why is it done?

increases the amount of enzymes/sugars in a grain so that when you ferment it, it has higher alcohol content.


how many oz in one standard beer?

12 oz


how many oz in one standard malt liquor?

8-9 oz


how many oz in one standard glass of wine?

5 oz


how many oz in one standard shot?

1.5 oz


each drink raises a person's BAC by what amount?

by 0.015 to 0.02 g/DL


a BAC of 0.08 means you have had how many drinks?

4 ish.


alcohol metabolism follows what type of kinetics? how many drinks can we metabolize per hour?

zero order kinetics. (independent of concentration of alcohol: dependent only on time)
can metabolize about 1 drink (0.015 to 0.02 g/DL) per hour.


at what BAC would a non-tolerant person be in huge trouble from alcohol poisoning?

at a BAC of 0.3 g/DL, most people would be in the process of dying from alcohol poisoning.


at what BAC is a person legally intoxicated?

.08 g/DL


what signs would we see at a BAC of 0.2 to 0.3 g/DL?

nystagmus, blackouts, severe behavioral disinhibition


what signs would we see at a BAC of 0.3 to 0.4 g/DL?

slowing HR, hypotension, coma, death


if a person's BAC does not correlate with their physical signs, what may be going on?

they may be tolerant.


if a person is very tolerant to alcohol, at what point might you see signs of withdrawal?

you can see signs of withdrawal even at high BACs for people who are tolerant: for ex, someone may have to keep their BAC over 0.08 in order to avoid withdrawal.


what are some physical signs of withdrawal?

seizures, changes in LOC, tremors, nausea, vomiting, hallucinations. can be fatal