43. Dementia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 43. Dementia Deck (10)
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1

name 5 of the most common types of dementia

1. Alzheimer's
2. Vascular dementia
3. Dementia with Lewy Bodies
4. Parkinson's Dementia
5. Frontotemporal Dementia

2

what are the typical cognitive impairments that occur in dementia?

-Amnesia: memory impairment (primarily recent memory)
-Ahasia (language disturbance)
-Apraxia (inability to carry out motor activites despite intact motor function
-Agnosia (failure to recognize objects/people/places despite intact sensory function
-Executive dysfunction

3

what is the result of the cognitive impairments that occur in dementia?

SIGNIFICANT impairment in social or occupational functioning
SIGNIFICANT decline from prior level of functioning

4

what are the functional impairments that occur in dementia?

inability to perform activities of daily living
behavioral disturbances (depression, agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, sleep problems, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, disinhibition)

5

what are the most impt pathological features of Alz?

Amyloid plaques (beta-amyloid proteins)
neurofibrillary tangles (Tau proteins)

6

what are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles associated with?

cell death, brain atrophy

7

what are the most impt risk factors for Alz?

AGE
genetics (specifically having APOE4)

8

what is the difference between delirium and dementia?

-Delirium = rapid onset, fluctuation over day, significant problems with attention.
-Dementia: attention is pretty good until very late stages of disease. Chronic condition, will not reverse.

9

what is the single most common cause of dementia?

Alz

10

name 4 drugs used to treat Alz?

-Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors:
donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine
-NMDA antagonist:
memantine