Erikson: what is his model of development called?
what are the 5 basic tenets of Erikson’s Psychosocial Model?
- Most children are normal
- The process of dev has both consistencies and variations
- Most families want the best for their children, and though mistakes are made, generally provide consistent and good enough parenting to enable children to maneuver the stages adequately
- Gains in dev competency always start a cascade of changes in the child and their envt
- Interventions should be guided by strengths and not deficits
First year of life: psychosocial crisis? favorable outcome?
crisis: trust v mistrust
good outcome: trust and optimism
General goals of the first year
adequate and consistent care and love –> ability to form trusting relationships. platform for trying out more autonomy in the second year
Second year of life: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: autonomy v shame and doubt
good outcome: sense of self, control and mastery
general goals of the second year
becomes stubborn and defiant; signals the nacent autonomy and exploration of the world beyond the parent. control actions/impulses, trust selves as individuals.
third -fifth year of life: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: initiative v guilt
good outcome: purpose/direction, ability to initiate
general goals of the third-fifth year
progress from rigid and defiance, to ability to create and to follow through on self-motivated activities. view self as separate person with own body, mind, emotions. move from transitional objects/imag friends to rela relationships.
6th year through puberty: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: industry v inferiority
good outcome: competence in intellectual, social, physical skills
general goals of yrs 6 through puberty
learn social skills which are valued by society. read, write, learn physical skills, learn to socialize with other people. value group norms and rules, also competition comes into play
adolescence: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: identity vs role confusion
good outcome: integrated sense of unique self
general goals of adolescence
transition between childhood and adulthood. sexual development, identity separate from the family. relationships characterized by clearly identified shared values.
early adulthood: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: intimacy v isolation
good outcome: close and lasting relationships; career commitments
early adulthood: general goals
commit to an occupation, choose a partner, form intimate relationships. development of a family and occupational role is paramount
middle adulthood: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: generativity v self-absorption
good outcome: concern for family, society, future generations
middle adulthood: general goals
active involvement in career, beginning to mentor. emphasis on world view and caring for the next generation
aging years: crisis? good outcome?
crisis: integrity v despair
good outcome: sense of fulfillment, satisfaction. leaving a legacy
aging years: general goals
face end of life. to the extent that has resolved earlier stages, feels sense of wholeness and integrity. to the extent that there is regret and missed opportunities, sense of trepidation and despair.
Piaget’s view of infant intelligence?
infant intelligence is seen in terms of actions and interactions with the environment. true thought does not appear until language skills emerge.
Stanford-Binet test: how does it work, what does it determine?
presents questions until person is unable to answer. where person is unable to answer, indicates their mental age. measure of intelligence.
Piaget and the wrong answers?
on the stanford-binet test, children who answered incorrectly tended to give the same wrong answer. Piaget thought this was a window into thought processes. He used this to examine the process of problem solution rather than attainment of correct answer.
what is Piaget’s theory of intelligence?
it is a continuous process of adaptation to the environment, in which the actions of the infants themselves play an impt role. Biol maturation provides the motivation or drive for the infants to practice primitive skills until they become successful tools. Learning is the constant refitting of old structures to become new ones.
Piaget’s theory is called what? how many stages?
Theory of Cognitive Development. 4 stages.
what identifies what stage a child is in, for Piaget?
the types of schemas they demonstrate rather than their chrono age.
Piaget Sensorimotor period: age range? characteristics?
differentiate self from object, seek stimulation, understand object permanence, somewhat understand causality, engage in imaginative play, begin symbolic thought.
Piaget preoperational period: age range? characteristics?
use symbols to represent objects and experiences. use language symbolically. show intuitive problem solving. begin to categorize, see relationships, understand numbers. no theory of mind. centration: leads to failing to understand the juice pouring test.
piaget: period of concrete operations: age range? characteristics?
understand conservation of mass, length, width, volume. thinking allows for understanding others (theory of mind), also logical and can categorize by hierarchy, see relationships, understand conservation of numbers.
piaget: period of formal operations. age range? characteristics?
flexibility in thinking, capacity for abstraction and mental hypothesis testing. consider possible alternatives in reasoning and problem solving. Understand love, shades of grey
Theories of attachment: what researcher is associated?
definition of attachment?
specific, enduring emotional bond whose existence is of major importance in the process of sociopersonality development.
what is a good response to beign placed in Ainsworth’s Strange Situation?
infant 10-24 months, should be able to use attachment figures as secure bases from whic to explore the new envt. entrance of stanger should cause infant to move closer to parent, at least temporarily. parent departure should elicit distress/crying. parent return should cause infant to re-engage in interaction, and to be soothed.
describe Secure Attachment
upon reunion after brief separation from parent, seek physical contact, proximity, interaction. readily soothed, able to return to exploration and play.
describe Insecure-Avoidant Attachment
actively avoid/ignore parent on return. may move away and ignore parent’s attempts to communicate.
describe Insecure-Resistant attachment
infant wants contact but parent unable to soothe. child may show signs of anger, seeking proximity and then resisting it.
describe Insecure-Disorganized attachment
show signs of disorganzation – crying for parent then running away when parent enters; approaching parent with head down. may show disorientation, seeming to freeze for a few seconds.
what is associated with Secure Attachment?
socially desirable parenting: nurturing, attentive, nonrestrictive.
what causes children that are Insecurely attached?
parents who over or understimulate, are cold or rejecting, or are generally inept.
Disorganized attachment sometimes signals what?
can signal abuse
cross cultural thoughts about this theory?
different distributions of children’s attachment styles across cultures. either differences in parenting style or inborn temperamental differences.
how is temperament generally viewed
as having a genetic basis, being somewhat stable over time.
what are the 4 behavioral styles of infants?
easy infants, difficult infants, slow to warm up infants, average infants.
constitutionally based individual differences in emotion, motor, reactivity and self-regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations and over time. (your tuning)
what is a transition object?
a mother that you can bring with you – first act of creativity! the child creates what it needs. defense against anxiety. Object both as having attributes of self and mother, but at the same time recognized as not self and mother thus allows for development of notion of “not me.”
dev milestone: 6 weeks?
dev milestone: 2 months
chest and head held upright and steady
dev milestone: 4 months
dev milestone: 6 mo
dev milestone: 8-10 mo
stranger anxiety, pulls to stand
dev milestone: 12 months
walks, uses a cup
dev milestone: 12-18 mo
single words, two word phrases may start (up to 24 months)
dev milestone: 3-4 yrs
draws a closed circle
dev milestone: 4 yrs
hops on one foot, dresses with help, draw a square
what is the prime time for emotional dev?
from birth to 18 months, when a young child is forming attachments with critical caregivers.
–The first 18 months provide the foundations for other aspects of emotional development; lasting effect on how one feels about oneself and the world.
development of sharing: what age?
2 yo don’t share; 3 yo more likely to
what is attachment behavior?
part of emotional dev. Behavior that promotes proximity or contact with the specific figure or figures to whom the person is attached.