Flashcards in 9. Adolescent Development Deck (27)
what marks the start of adolescence?
varied over different cultures, but often defined with the start of puberty
what is the mark for the start of puberty?
development of secondary sexual characteristics.
when does puberty begin for girls and boys?
girls: onset 8 to 13
boys: onset 9 to 14
what are Tanner stages?
5 stages of puberty. assesses pubic hair, breast and genital development
sequence of development for girls?
hair in pubic area and armpits, acne
menstruation usually last
sequence of development for boys?
testicles/penis get bigger
hair in pubic area and armpits
muscles grow, voice deepens, acne/facial hair
how much sleep do teenagers need? what happens to their circadian rhythm?
Circ shifts forward (later to bed, later to wake up)
what happens in the brain just before adolescence?
second wave of dendritic proliferation just before adolescence. adds a new layer of grey matter in the prefrontal cortex
what is the process of pruning?
around age 11, brain begins to get rid of extra connections, making order of a tangle of wires. becomes more efficient/organized. Use it or Lose it stage
ongoing neural development continues until what age?
Prefrontal cortex: follows what pattern of dev?
linear from childhood intl 20s
Ventral Striatum and LImbuc system: what pattern of dev?
maturation peaks around 13-17 yrs
why are the different dev patterns for Prefrontal cortex and Ventral Striatum/Limbic a problem?
Ventral Striatum/Limbic are sensitive to reward, like risk taking. Peaks before PFC is fully mature and able to make good judgement, strategic decisions. MISMATCH.
in adolescence, what processes emotional information?
the amygdala, not the PFC as in adults
how will testosterone affect mood in boys?
stimulates the amygdala 5-7 times daily (where they process emotional information)
how do estrogen and progesterone affect mood in girls?
receptors for these found on serotonin, NE, DA cells. hormonal fluctuations affect mood through these pathways
why might girls have an advantage with memory tasks?
estrogen affects hippocampus and hippocampus is involved in consolidation of information/memory,
What is Piaget's Concrete Operational stage? what kind of logic is used during this stage?
stage just before Formal Operations stage. ages 7-11 yrs. Use Inductive logic during this stage (can draw inferences from observations in order to generalize).
What is Piaget's Formal Operations stage? what kind of logic is used during this stage?
11-adulthood, development of abstract reasoning. capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning (draw from a generalized principle in order to understand a specific event).
understand love, nuance, problem solving, growth in social perspective
Erickson's Developmental Stages: ages 5-11? ages 12-19?
5-11: Industry v. Inferiority
12-19: Ego Identity v. Role Confusion
How do Erickson's Developmental Stages work?
at each stage, there is a central confilct which mush be resolved before you can progress to the next stage. mastering each stage gives a sense of ego strength.
Ego Identity v. Role Confusion: what occurs during this stage?
sense of self. may be some experimentation before settling on the personality that fits.
-define ones sexual identity
-differentiate oneself from parents
evolution of personal appearance?
early stage: may be neglect, indifference
middle stage: focus on stereotyped appearance
lat stage: more comfortable with self-image, see resolution
in adolescence, what is the function of the peer group?
functions as a transitional object
acceptance requires conformity, which then declines around age 14
how does autonomy progress through adolescence?
early: incr conflict with parents, testing rules and limits
middle: conflict with family, incr reliance on friends
late: incr independence and self reliance
what results from unsuccessful resolution of dev tasks?
identity confusion, psych dependence, isolation, impulsivity and aggression, depression