3.2 Chemical Events At The Synapse Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Neuroscience > 3.2 Chemical Events At The Synapse > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.2 Chemical Events At The Synapse Deck (29):
1

T.R. Elliott

A young British scientist, reported in 1905 that the hormone adrenaline closely mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system

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Otto Loewi

A German physiologist, concluded that nerves send messages by releasing chemicals by using fluid from the heart of a frog and transferring it to another frog's heart

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Neurotransmitters

The chemicals that are released by one neuron at the synapse and that affect another

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Amino acids

Acids containing an amine group (NH2)

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Peptides

Chains of amino acids

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Polypeptide

A long chain of amino acids

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Protein

A still longer chain of amino acids

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Monoamines

Nonacidic neurotransmitters containing an amine group, formed by a metabolic change of certain amino acids

9

An Amine group

(NH2)

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Purines

A category of chemicals including adenosine and several of its derivatives

11

Nitric oxide

NO; A gas released by many small local neurons; it dilates the blood vessels to increase blood flow to the most active areas of the brain

12

Catecholamines

Epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine; contain a catechol group and an amine group

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Vesicles

Tiny nearly spherical packets; where the presynaptic terminal stores high concentrations of neurotransmitter molecules

14

Exocytosis

The process of excreting the neurotransmitter through its membrane and into the synaptic cleft between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

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Dale's principle

The incorrect generalization that each neuron released just one neurotransmitter

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ionotropic effects

The neurotransmitter attaches to a receptor on the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron, almost immediately opening the gate for some type of ion; Rapid, but short-lived

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Glutamate

The most abundant excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain

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GABA

Inhibitory

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Nicotinic synapses

They can be stimulated by the drug nicotine

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Ionotropic synapses

Useful for conveying information about visual and auditory stimulation, muscle movements, and other rapidly changing events

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Metabotropic effects

These effects take place by initiating a sequence of metabolic reactions that are slower and longer lasting than ionotropic effects

22

G-protein

A protein coupled to guanosine triphosphate, an energy-storing molecule

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Second messenger

Carries a message to areas within the cell

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Neuromodulator

An intermediate between a neurotransmitter a hormone; they affect all those nearby cells that have receptors for them

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Acetylcholineterase

The enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine into two segments acetate and choline, after it has already activated a receptor

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Reuptake

The process of the presynaptic neuron taking up most of these neurotransmitter molecules intact and reusing them; occurs through special membrane proteins called transporters

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Transporters

Special membrane proteins that allow neurotransmitter molecules to be reuptaken

28

The enzymes that convert catecholamine transmitters into inactive chemicals

Catechol-o-methyl-transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO)

29

Sympathetic nervous system

A set of nerves that control the internal organs