4.2 The Cerebral Cortex Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.2 The Cerebral Cortex Deck (24)
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Corpus callosum and anterior commissure

Two bundles of axons in which neurons in each hemisphere communicate with neurons in the corresponding part of the other hemisphere



Layers of cell bodies that are parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from each other by layers of fibers



How the cells of the cortex are organized; cells are formed into columns based on similar properties, and arranged perpendicular to the laminae


Occipital lobe

Located at the posterior end of the cortex; the main target for axons from the thalamic nuclei that receive input from the visual pathways


Primary visual cortex/striate cortex

The very posterior pole of the accidental lube; has a striped appearance in cross-section


Cortical blindness

Caused by destruction of any part of the striate cortex in the related part of the visual field


Parietal lobe

Lies between the occipital lobe in the central sulcus; Monitors all the information about eye, head, and body positions and passes it on to other brain areas that control movement


Central sulcus

One of the deepest grooves in the surface of the cortex


Postcentral gyrus/primary somatosensory cortex

Posterior to the central sulcus; the primary target for touch sensations and information from muscle stretch receptors and joint receptors



A fascinating symptom of right-hemisphere parietal lobe damage; a tendency to ignore the contralateral side of the body and world


Temporal lobe

The lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples; the primary cortical target for auditory information; the left temporal lobe is for understanding spoken language; also contributes to some of the more complex aspects of vision, including perception of movement in recognition of faces; Also plays a part in the emotional and motivational behaviors


Klüver-Bucy syndrome

Previously wild and aggressive monkeys failed display normal fears and anxieties after temporal lobe damage


Frontal lobe

Contains the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex; extends from the central sulcus to the interior limit of the brain


Cerebral cortex

The cellular layers on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres form gray matter


Precentral gyrus

The posterior portion of the frontal lobe just anterior to the central sulcus; specialized for the control of fine movements


Prefrontal cortex

Most anterior portion of the frontal lobe; receives information from all the sensory systems, including the interior of the body; Important for working memory and the delayed-response task; contributes to the shifting of attention


Prefrontal lobotomy

Surgical disconnection of the prefrontal protects from the rest of the brain; used to be conducted in attempts to control psychological disorders


Working memory

The ability to remember recent stimuli and events


Delayed-response task

A stimulus appears briefly, and after some delay, the individual must respond to the remembered stimulus


Reference memory

The ability to remember unchanging information


The binding problem

The question of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of your brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object


Gamma waves

30-80 action potentials per second


One hypothesis for the binding problem

Binding of the perception depends on precisely simultaneous activity in various brain areas


What causes synchrony to develop? (The binding problem)

Synchrony among distant parts of the cortex depends on coordination by an area in the inferior parietal cortex