4.2 The Cerebral Cortex Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Neuroscience > 4.2 The Cerebral Cortex > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.2 The Cerebral Cortex Deck (24):
1

Corpus callosum and anterior commissure

Two bundles of axons in which neurons in each hemisphere communicate with neurons in the corresponding part of the other hemisphere

2

Laminae

Layers of cell bodies that are parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from each other by layers of fibers

3

Columns

How the cells of the cortex are organized; cells are formed into columns based on similar properties, and arranged perpendicular to the laminae

4

Occipital lobe

Located at the posterior end of the cortex; the main target for axons from the thalamic nuclei that receive input from the visual pathways

5

Primary visual cortex/striate cortex

The very posterior pole of the accidental lube; has a striped appearance in cross-section

6

Cortical blindness

Caused by destruction of any part of the striate cortex in the related part of the visual field

7

Parietal lobe

Lies between the occipital lobe in the central sulcus; Monitors all the information about eye, head, and body positions and passes it on to other brain areas that control movement

8

Central sulcus

One of the deepest grooves in the surface of the cortex

9

Postcentral gyrus/primary somatosensory cortex

Posterior to the central sulcus; the primary target for touch sensations and information from muscle stretch receptors and joint receptors

10

Neglect

A fascinating symptom of right-hemisphere parietal lobe damage; a tendency to ignore the contralateral side of the body and world

11

Temporal lobe

The lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples; the primary cortical target for auditory information; the left temporal lobe is for understanding spoken language; also contributes to some of the more complex aspects of vision, including perception of movement in recognition of faces; Also plays a part in the emotional and motivational behaviors

12

Klüver-Bucy syndrome

Previously wild and aggressive monkeys failed display normal fears and anxieties after temporal lobe damage

13

Frontal lobe

Contains the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex; extends from the central sulcus to the interior limit of the brain

14

Cerebral cortex

The cellular layers on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres form gray matter

15

Precentral gyrus

The posterior portion of the frontal lobe just anterior to the central sulcus; specialized for the control of fine movements

16

Prefrontal cortex

Most anterior portion of the frontal lobe; receives information from all the sensory systems, including the interior of the body; Important for working memory and the delayed-response task; contributes to the shifting of attention

17

Prefrontal lobotomy

Surgical disconnection of the prefrontal protects from the rest of the brain; used to be conducted in attempts to control psychological disorders

18

Working memory

The ability to remember recent stimuli and events

19

Delayed-response task

A stimulus appears briefly, and after some delay, the individual must respond to the remembered stimulus

20

Reference memory

The ability to remember unchanging information

21

The binding problem

The question of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of your brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object

22

Gamma waves

30-80 action potentials per second

23

One hypothesis for the binding problem

Binding of the perception depends on precisely simultaneous activity in various brain areas

24

What causes synchrony to develop? (The binding problem)

Synchrony among distant parts of the cortex depends on coordination by an area in the inferior parietal cortex