4.1 Anatomy Of The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Behavioral Neuroscience > 4.1 Anatomy Of The Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.1 Anatomy Of The Nervous System Deck (34):
1

Somatic nervous system

Part of the peripheral nervous system; consists of the nerves I can thing messages from the sense organs to the central nervous system and from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

2

Autonomic nervous system

Part of the peripheral nervous system; a set of neurons that control the heart intestines and other organs

3

Dorsal

The top of the brain

4

Ventral

The bottom of the brain

5

Bell-Magendie law

Refers to the observation that the entering dorsal roots carry sensory information and the exiting ventral roots carry motor information to the muscles and glands

6

Dorsal root ganglia

Clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord

7

Hindbrain

The posterior part of the brain; consists of the medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum

8

Brainstem

The medulla and pons, the midbrain, and certain central structures of the forebrain

9

Medulla oblongata

Just above the spinal cord and can be regarded as an enlarged, elaborated extension of the spinal cord; controls a number of vital reflexes including breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, and sneezing

10

Cranial nerves

A set of nerves that control sensory and motor information of the head

11

Neuroanatomy

The anatomy of the nervous system

12

Pons

Lies anterior and ventral to the medulla; contains the nuclei for several cranial nerves; contains the reticular formation and the raphe system

13

Reticular formation

Includes descending and ascending portions; the descending portion controls the motor areas of the spinal cord; the ascending portions sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attention in one area or another

14

Raphe System

Sends axons to much of the forebrain, increasing or decreasing the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli

15

Cerebellum

A large hindbrain structure with a great many deep folds; contributes to the control of motor movements, balance, and coordination

16

Midbrain

The middle of the brain

17

Tectum

The roof of the midbrain

18

Superior and inferior colliculus

The two swellings on each side of the tectum; Part of important routes for sensory information

19

Tegmentum

The intermediate level of the midbrain, under the tectum; includes the nuclei for the third and fourth cranial nerves, parts of the reticular formation, and extensions for the pathways between the forebrain and the spinal cord or hindbrain

20

Substantia nigra

Part of the midbrain structure; gives rise to a dopamine-containing path that deteriorates in Parkinson's disease

21

Forebrain

The most anterior and most prominent part of the mammalian brain

22

Limbic system

Interlinked structures that form the border around the brainstem; these structures are particularly important for motivated and emotional behaviors, such as eating, drinking, sexual activity, anxiety, and aggression; includes the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex

23

Diencephalon

The thalamus and hypothalamus together

24

thalamus

A structure in the center of the forebrain; most sensory information goes first to the thalamus, which then processes it and sends the output to the cerebral cortex, except for olfactory information

25

Hypothalamus

A small area near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus; conveys messages to the pituitary gland, altering its release of hormones

26

Pituitary gland

An endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus; synthesizes and releases hormones into the blood stream, which carries them to other organs

27

Basal ganglia

A group of subcortical structures lateral to the thalamus, include three major structures the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the Globus pallidus; Responsible for planning sequences of behavior and for certain aspects of memory and emotional expression

28

Nucleus basalis

Lies on the dorsal surface of the forebrain; receives input from the hypothalamus and basal ganglia, and sends axons that release acetylcholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex; A key part of the brain system for arousal, wakefulness, and attention

29

Hippocampus

A large structure between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, mostly toward the posterior of the forebrain; critical for storing certain kinds of memories; stores new memories

30

Fornix

A major axon tract that links the hippocampus with the hypothalamus and several other structures

31

Central canal

A fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord; contains cerebrospinal fluid

32

Ventricles

Four fluid-filled cavities within the brain; contains cerebrospinal fluid

33

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

A clear fluid similar to blood plasma; it flows from the lateral ventricles to the third and then to the fourth ventricle; from the fourth ventricle some flows into the central canal, but more goes to an opening into thin spaces between the brain and the meninges; cushions the brain against mechanical shock when the head moves; provides buoyancy; provides a reservoir of hormones and nutrition for the brain and spinal cord

34

Meninges

Membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord