9.17 Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9.17 Notes Deck (21):
1

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

A message coming into the receiving cell, telling you to rest

2

What happens at the end of the neuron that allows it to fire?

Calcium ions (Ca++) goes into the cell

3

Vesicles

Contains neurotransmitters; floats towards the edge of the neuron and binds, and releases the neurotransmitters into the synapse

4

Two ways to get rid of neurotransmitters in the synapse

Reuptake and enzymatic degradation

5

Reuptake

A molecule picks up the neurotransmitters and brings them back to the presynaptic neuron to be recycled; some drugs can stop this process, such as SSRIs

6

Enzymatic degradation

Enzymes attack the neurotransmitter, breaks it into pieces and sends it to the blood; MAOs

7

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)

Destroys norepinephrine by enzymatic degradation

8

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Destroys the MAO molecule; used to treat depression; not used often anymore due to a possible side effect of death, known as a cheese reaction-a long list of foods they cannot eat; can increase blood pressure and cause strokes

9

Coexistence

Neurons can have multiple types of neurotransmitters in a vesicle, but they always have the same number

10

Receptors

A type of neuron that receives information from the external environment; also the proteins on a postsynaptic neuron that receives only certain types of neurotransmitters

11

Types of synapses

Axo-dendritic; axo-somatic; axo-axonic; dendri-dendritic

12

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals that neurons use to communicate

13

The six criteria for neurotransmitters

Chemical must be produced in a neuron; chemical has to be found within a neuron; when a neuron is depolarized, the chemical must come out; when the chemical is released, it must act on the receptor and cause a biological change; after a chemical is released, it must be deactivated by either reuptake or enzymatic degradation; if you take the chemical and put it on a postsynaptic neuron, it should cause the same effect as if it came directly from the presynaptic neuron

14

Acetylcholine (Ach)

Involved in memory, learning, dreaming, concentration, motor movement (neuromuscular junction- neuron synapses with a muscle); two types of receptors-nicotinic and muscarinic (motor movements)

15

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP)

A message coming into the receiving cell, telling it to fire

16

Dopamine (Da)

Involved in depression, addiction, hallucinations, positive symptoms of schizophrenia (Too much dopamine), reward pathways, movement (Parkinson's disease-death of dopamine-producing inhibitory neurons); Wellbutrin-affect dopamine to treat depression and smoking cessation, but a side effect is psychosis

17

Norepinephrine (NE)/epinephrine (E)

Involved in attention, focus, awareness, alertness, startle response, and depression

18

Serotonin (5-HT)

Involved in depression, OCD, SAD; violently suicidal people and arsonists have high levels of serotonin

19

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Involved in anxiety; affected by Xanax, alcohol, heroin, Valium, and benzodiazepines

20

Glutamate

Most common neurotransmitter in the brain; primarily excitatory

21

Nitric oxide

Dilates blood vessels