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Flashcards in 12.3 Notes Deck (42):
1

Electroencephalogram

EEG; measures brain activity

2

Electromyogram

EMG; measures muscle tone

3

Electrooculogram

EOG; measures eye movements

4

Polysomnogram

Contains all three measures for sleep: EEG, EMG, EOG

5

What can lack of sleep cause?

Learning disabilities, impaired immune system function, memory problems, mood dysregulation

6

What is sleep important for?

Sleep is important for growth, the immune system functioning, memory, regulating mood, and temperature regulation

7

What was the Freudian belief that sleep is necessary for?

To release sexual urges in that if you did not sleep, you would go crazy

8

Microsleeps

When the brain sleeps for a fraction of a second to a second

9

Short sleepers

Only four hours of sleep are needed

10

Long sleepers

10 or more hours of sleep are needed

11

Average sleepers

Need about eight hours of sleep

12

How many pounds can a person gain after one night of no sleep?

3 pounds

13

How do SSRIs affect sleep?

Almost completely gets rid of REM sleep

14

Slow wave sleep

Deep sleep; immune response; after 30 years old, there is no more of the stage

15

Hypnopompic

After you are awake

16

Hypnagogic

Before you are sleep

17

Brain waves while awake

Rapid; low-voltage; beta waves; best; choppy; desynchronized

18

Brain waves while you are drowsy

Alpha waves; 8 to 12 cps; 75 mV; synchronized; muscle tone decreases

19

Brain waves during stage one sleep

Beta waves; 3 to 7 cps; short, fast waves; desynchronized; muscle tone decreasing; eyes begin slow rolling movements; hypnagogic imagery; Hypnagogic jerks; sleep paralysis

20

Hypnagogic imagery

Static images; if you don't, you're falling asleep too quickly

21

Hypnagogic jerk

Waking up suddenly after feeling like you're falling

22

Sleep paralysis

Cannot move; feelings of terror; possible connection to temporal lobe epilepsy

23

Slow rolling eye movements

One movement every five seconds; eyes move back-and-forth from side to side

24

REM sleep

You become completely paralyzed because of the pons; brain activity looks similar to when you are awake; REM stands for rapid eye movement; five eye movements per second in bursts; muscle tone is nonexistent; paralyzed except for the eyes in inner ear; fast, short weaves; sawtooth waves; dreaming; Breathing, HR, BP becomes fast and irregular; Oxygen, brain metabolism, and blood flow are used more than when you are awake; No control over body temperature; about 25% of your night; males get erections; decreases from infancy to adulthood it, then stable; PGO waves; increased activity in pons, thalamus, occipital lobe, amygdala, and motor cortex; dorsal lateral prefrontal lobe is turned off; very high levels of acetylcholine and no norepinephrine or serotonin

25

What do you need to study sleep?

Electroencephalogram (EE G), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) or polysomnogram

26

PGO waves

Pontinegeniculate waves; waves of activity from the pons to the LGN in the thalamus, to the occipital lobe, to the frontal lobe

27

REM sleep behavior disorder

Occurs when the pons inhibition doesn't work; people actually act out their dreams

28

Activation synthesis

You create a story to make sense of the neurologic to be based on the experiences you have while awake

29

Stage 2 sleep

Characterized by sleep spindles and K complexes; 12 to 14 cps; synchronized; high activity; related to learning; no slow-moving eye movements; Less muscle tone; about 50% of your night

30

K complexes

Sharp upward and sharp downward waves, then back to normal; intrusion of external info and the brain processes it, but the person does not wake up

31

Stage 3 and 4 sleep

Slow wave sleep; huge, tall, swallow waves; half to 2 cps; Synchronized; eyes do not move; some muscle tone, but very relaxed; images may be related to death: caused by the physiological effects

32

How long does each cycle occur?

Approximately 90 minutes

33

What are the levels of neurotransmitters during slow wave sleep?

No acetylcholine; higher levels of norepinephrine and serotonin

34

What are the levels of neurotransmitters during wakefulness?

Moderate levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine

35

How long does it take for your neurotransmitter levels to return to waking levels upon waking up?

Approximately 75 to 90 minutes

36

Locus coeruleas

Norepinephrine

37

Raphe nucleus

Serotonin

38

Pontine reticular formation

Acetylcholine

39

Klein Levin syndrome

Sleeping beauty syndrome; The person will sleep for weeks at a time, only getting up to eat and drink; often it's weird foods

40

Restless leg syndrome

The urge to kick and move ones legs while they're trying to fall sleep; can be caused by magnesium deficiency; friends the person from getting deep sleep

41

Cataplexy

Bursts of paralysis during wakefulness as a result of intense emotions

42

Lucid dreaming

Awareness of dream; can control one's dream; decreased inhibition of the prefrontal cortex