Flashcards in 12.3 Notes Deck (42)
EEG; measures brain activity
EMG; measures muscle tone
EOG; measures eye movements
Contains all three measures for sleep: EEG, EMG, EOG
What can lack of sleep cause?
Learning disabilities, impaired immune system function, memory problems, mood dysregulation
What is sleep important for?
Sleep is important for growth, the immune system functioning, memory, regulating mood, and temperature regulation
What was the Freudian belief that sleep is necessary for?
To release sexual urges in that if you did not sleep, you would go crazy
When the brain sleeps for a fraction of a second to a second
Only four hours of sleep are needed
10 or more hours of sleep are needed
Need about eight hours of sleep
How many pounds can a person gain after one night of no sleep?
How do SSRIs affect sleep?
Almost completely gets rid of REM sleep
Slow wave sleep
Deep sleep; immune response; after 30 years old, there is no more of the stage
After you are awake
Before you are sleep
Brain waves while awake
Rapid; low-voltage; beta waves; best; choppy; desynchronized
Brain waves while you are drowsy
Alpha waves; 8 to 12 cps; 75 mV; synchronized; muscle tone decreases
Brain waves during stage one sleep
Beta waves; 3 to 7 cps; short, fast waves; desynchronized; muscle tone decreasing; eyes begin slow rolling movements; hypnagogic imagery; Hypnagogic jerks; sleep paralysis
Static images; if you don't, you're falling asleep too quickly
Waking up suddenly after feeling like you're falling
Cannot move; feelings of terror; possible connection to temporal lobe epilepsy
Slow rolling eye movements
One movement every five seconds; eyes move back-and-forth from side to side
You become completely paralyzed because of the pons; brain activity looks similar to when you are awake; REM stands for rapid eye movement; five eye movements per second in bursts; muscle tone is nonexistent; paralyzed except for the eyes in inner ear; fast, short weaves; sawtooth waves; dreaming; Breathing, HR, BP becomes fast and irregular; Oxygen, brain metabolism, and blood flow are used more than when you are awake; No control over body temperature; about 25% of your night; males get erections; decreases from infancy to adulthood it, then stable; PGO waves; increased activity in pons, thalamus, occipital lobe, amygdala, and motor cortex; dorsal lateral prefrontal lobe is turned off; very high levels of acetylcholine and no norepinephrine or serotonin
What do you need to study sleep?
Electroencephalogram (EE G), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) or polysomnogram
Pontinegeniculate waves; waves of activity from the pons to the LGN in the thalamus, to the occipital lobe, to the frontal lobe
REM sleep behavior disorder
Occurs when the pons inhibition doesn't work; people actually act out their dreams
You create a story to make sense of the neurologic to be based on the experiences you have while awake
Stage 2 sleep
Characterized by sleep spindles and K complexes; 12 to 14 cps; synchronized; high activity; related to learning; no slow-moving eye movements; Less muscle tone; about 50% of your night
Sharp upward and sharp downward waves, then back to normal; intrusion of external info and the brain processes it, but the person does not wake up
Stage 3 and 4 sleep
Slow wave sleep; huge, tall, swallow waves; half to 2 cps; Synchronized; eyes do not move; some muscle tone, but very relaxed; images may be related to death: caused by the physiological effects
How long does each cycle occur?
Approximately 90 minutes
What are the levels of neurotransmitters during slow wave sleep?
No acetylcholine; higher levels of norepinephrine and serotonin
What are the levels of neurotransmitters during wakefulness?
Moderate levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine
How long does it take for your neurotransmitter levels to return to waking levels upon waking up?
Approximately 75 to 90 minutes
Pontine reticular formation
Klein Levin syndrome
Sleeping beauty syndrome; The person will sleep for weeks at a time, only getting up to eat and drink; often it's weird foods
Restless leg syndrome
The urge to kick and move ones legs while they're trying to fall sleep; can be caused by magnesium deficiency; friends the person from getting deep sleep
Bursts of paralysis during wakefulness as a result of intense emotions