3.1 The concept of the synapse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1 The concept of the synapse Deck (16):
1

Charles Scott Sherrington

Inferred that a specialized type of communication occurs at the gap between two neurons, which he labeled the synapse

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Synapse

The gap between two neurons

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Reflexes

Automatic responses to stimuli

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Reflex arc

Circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response

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Temporal summation

Repeated stimuli occurring within a brief time can have a cumulative effect

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Postsynaptic neuron

The cell that receives the message

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Presynaptic neuron

The neuron that delivers the synaptic transmission

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Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)

A graded depolarization; Results from sodium ions entering the cell

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Spatial summation

Several synaptic inputs originating from separate locations can exert a cumulative effect on a neuron

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

Temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane; occurs when synaptic input selectively opens the gates for potassium ions to leave the cell, carrying a positive charge with them, or for chloride ions to enter the cell, carrying a negative charge

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Inhibition

More than just the absence of excitation; it is an active brake that can suppress excitatory responses

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The greater the number of EPSPs,

The greater the probability of an action potential

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The greater the number of IPSPs,

The lower the probability of an action potential

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Graded potentials

Decrease in strength as a flow from their point of origin toward other parts of the neuron

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Spontaneous firing rate

A periodic production of action potentials even without synaptic input

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Ramon y Cajal

Demonstrated that neurons do not physically merge into one another and that a narrow gap separates