4. Cell Injury + Inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4. Cell Injury + Inflammation Deck (30):
1

Goblet cells in the stomach - normal or abnormal?

Abnormal - glandular metaplasia

2

Glandular metaplasia in the stomach is a precursor to what?

Gastric adenocarcinoma

3

What is the precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the skin? Farmer skin pigmentation scraped off and it grew back.

Actinic keratosis (from UV sun exposure)

4

What causes rubor, calor, tumor in acute inflammation?

Histamine!
1. Rubor and calor - arterial vasodilation
2. Tumor - increase permeability of venules

5

What causes dolor in acute inflammation?

Bradykinin - increases vessel permeability

6

What degrades bradykinin?

ACE

7

What 2 cells have type IV collagenase?

Neutrophils and cancer cells

8

What are two opsonizers?

IgG, C3b

9

Where is most NADPH synthesized?

Pentose phosphate shunt

10

What enzyme produces NADPH?

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase

11

What does NADPH do?

Converts molecular oxygen to free radical

12

What cells have the oxygen-dependent myeloperoxidase system?

Neutrophils and monocytes (but not macrophages)

13

What's the macrophage of the CNS?

Microbial cells

14

Why does G6PD often first present with infection?

No NADPH = no working oxygen-dependent myeloperoxidase system

15

Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood - what can they kill and why?

Can kill strep but not staph because staph produces catalase which neutralizes the peroxide it produces (which is what the kid with the disease needs)

16

What's the difference between chronic granulomatous disease of childhood vs. myeloperoxidase deficiency?

BOTH cannot make bleach

CGD - no respiratory burst, sex-linked
Myeloperoxidase deficiency - yes respiratory burst, autosomal recessive

17

What amino acid makes serotonin?

Tryptophan

18

Where is NO made?

Endothelial cells

19

What does NO do?

Major vasodilator - plays a big role in septic shock

20

IL-1 does what?

Fever

21

Corticosteroids do what?

Inhibit phospholipase A2 so you don't produce prostaglandins or leukotrienes

22

What does omega-3 do?

Like aspirin - block platelet aggregation

23

Leukotrienes are what?

Bronchoconstrictors

24

What does aspirin block?

Cyclooxygenase (irreversible)

25

PGI2 is made where?

Endothelial cells

26

Thromboxane A2 is made where?

Platelet

27

Why does cortisol lead to increase in neutrophils?

Decreases adhesion molecule synthesis so the neutrophils enter the blood stream

28

How do corticosteroids affect lymphocytes?

Stimulate caspases --> apoptosis --> decreased lymphocytes

29

How do corticosteroids affect eosinophils?

Decrease

30

What is the only granulocyte that has crystals in its granules?

Eosinophils