5. Inflammation + Fluid and Hemodynamics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5. Inflammation + Fluid and Hemodynamics Deck (37):
1

Chronically draining sinus tract on the skin with ulcer that doesn't respond to antibiotics?

Squamous cell cancer

2

What do we worry about with scars from 3rd degree burns?

Squamous cell cancer - lots of multiplying cells

3

What is the main immunoglobulin of acute inflammation?

IgM - need lots of complement components and IgM is the most potent activator (classical pathway)

4

What is the main immunoglobulin of chronic inflammation?

IgG

5

What is the key cell in allergic reaction?

Eosinophils

6

What's the main inflammatory cell in viral infection?

Lymphocytes

7

Is pus a characteristic of acute or chronic inflammation?

Acute - exudate from increased permeability

8

Are granulomas acute or chronic?

Chronic

9

What type of reaction causes a granuloma?

Type IV hypersensitivity

10

Describe the formation of a granuloma.

1. Macrophage processes TB antigen
2. Presents to CD4 cells
3. Release gamma interferon
4. Gamma interferon triggers macrophage to kill those organisms - caseous necrosis

11

What is an epithelioid?

Activated macrophage

12

Is the formation of a granuloma Th1 or Th2?

Th1

13

IL-12 promotes Th1 or Th2?

Th1

14

All histiocytes and macrophages have what CD?

CD1

15

What is the macrophage of the skin?

Langerhans cell

16

Why do we not see granulomas in AIDS?

Low CD4 count

17

Does scar tissue contract?

No

18

What happens to ejection volume when you have scar tissue in the heart?

Goes down

19

What part of the kidney is most susceptible to ischemia?

Medulla

20

What part of the nephron is most susceptible to hypoxia?

1. Straight part of the PCT
2. Medullary segment of the thick ascending limb

21

NKCC cotransporter is important for what?

Generating free water (takes the ions out and leaves the water) - when we block it we increase free water relative to obligated water so that ADH can act on it later; ADH can ONLY act on free water not obligated water

22

What does type II pneumocyte do?

1. Repair cell
2. Synthesizes surfactant

23

What is the repair cell of the CNS?

Astrocyte

24

What is the astrocyte reaction to injury?

Gliosis - proliferation of the astrocytes

25

What is the analogous cell in the CNS to the Schwann cell?

Oligodendrocyte

26

What causes RBC to stick together in ESR?

IgM - cold agglutinin (one explanation for Raynaud's; cold inducing hypoxia in the digits)

27

Which heptatitis should you associate with cryoglobulins?

C

28

Differentiate multiple myeloma with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia?

MM- IgG vs. Waldenstrom's - IgM

29

What does left shift mean?

More than 10% immature neutrophils (bands)

30

What do we look for in acute appendicitis?

Absolute neutrocytosis, left shift, toxic granulation

31

What is toxic granulation?

Increased number of lysosomes - more oxygen myeloperoxidase in the case of acute inflammation

32

What is edema?

Excess fluid in interstitial space

33

Exudate vs. transudate vs. lymphedema - which one pits?

Transudate

34

What are the 3 things that produce edema?

Exudate, transudate, lymphedema

35

What produces transudate?

Decrease in oncotic pressure or increase in hydrostatic pressure

36

How do we treat anaphylaxis?

1. Airway
2. Subcutaneous aqueous epinephrine

37

What's the most common cause of lymphedema in the U.S.?

Post radical mastectomy