Flashcards in 5. Inflammation + Fluid and Hemodynamics Deck (37):
Chronically draining sinus tract on the skin with ulcer that doesn't respond to antibiotics?
Squamous cell cancer
What do we worry about with scars from 3rd degree burns?
Squamous cell cancer - lots of multiplying cells
What is the main immunoglobulin of acute inflammation?
IgM - need lots of complement components and IgM is the most potent activator (classical pathway)
What is the main immunoglobulin of chronic inflammation?
What is the key cell in allergic reaction?
What's the main inflammatory cell in viral infection?
Is pus a characteristic of acute or chronic inflammation?
Acute - exudate from increased permeability
Are granulomas acute or chronic?
What type of reaction causes a granuloma?
Type IV hypersensitivity
Describe the formation of a granuloma.
1. Macrophage processes TB antigen
2. Presents to CD4 cells
3. Release gamma interferon
4. Gamma interferon triggers macrophage to kill those organisms - caseous necrosis
What is an epithelioid?
Is the formation of a granuloma Th1 or Th2?
IL-12 promotes Th1 or Th2?
All histiocytes and macrophages have what CD?
What is the macrophage of the skin?
Why do we not see granulomas in AIDS?
Low CD4 count
Does scar tissue contract?
What happens to ejection volume when you have scar tissue in the heart?
What part of the kidney is most susceptible to ischemia?
What part of the nephron is most susceptible to hypoxia?
1. Straight part of the PCT
2. Medullary segment of the thick ascending limb
NKCC cotransporter is important for what?
Generating free water (takes the ions out and leaves the water) - when we block it we increase free water relative to obligated water so that ADH can act on it later; ADH can ONLY act on free water not obligated water
What does type II pneumocyte do?
1. Repair cell
2. Synthesizes surfactant
What is the repair cell of the CNS?
What is the astrocyte reaction to injury?
Gliosis - proliferation of the astrocytes
What is the analogous cell in the CNS to the Schwann cell?
What causes RBC to stick together in ESR?
IgM - cold agglutinin (one explanation for Raynaud's; cold inducing hypoxia in the digits)
Which heptatitis should you associate with cryoglobulins?
Differentiate multiple myeloma with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia?
MM- IgG vs. Waldenstrom's - IgM
What does left shift mean?
More than 10% immature neutrophils (bands)
What do we look for in acute appendicitis?
Absolute neutrocytosis, left shift, toxic granulation
What is toxic granulation?
Increased number of lysosomes - more oxygen myeloperoxidase in the case of acute inflammation
What is edema?
Excess fluid in interstitial space
Exudate vs. transudate vs. lymphedema - which one pits?
What are the 3 things that produce edema?
Exudate, transudate, lymphedema
What produces transudate?
Decrease in oncotic pressure or increase in hydrostatic pressure
How do we treat anaphylaxis?
2. Subcutaneous aqueous epinephrine