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when your travelling downhill how can you keep control of your car and control your speed? (2)

- selecting a lower gear
- braking gently


what is coasting and why should you not do it?

travelling in neutral or with the clutch pressed down as it reduces your control


what is the overall stopping distance?

the distance your car travels from the moment you realise you must break to the moment the vehicle stops


when rainy what gap should you leave between you and the car infront?

4 seconds


when its icy what gap should you leave between you and the car in front?

20 seconds


how should you drive in freezing weather?

- use highest gear you can
- brake gently w plenty of time
- be prepared to stop and clear snow if your windscreen wipers can't


how should you drive when its foggy?

- allow more time for your journey
- slow down as less visibility
- increase gap between you and the vehicle in front of you
- used dipped headlights even in daylight
- use fog lights if visibility is below 100m


what is aquaplaning?

during heavy rain tyres may lift off the road and skate on top of the water makes the steering light


how do you deal with aquaplaning?

- ease off the accelerator
- don't brake until steering feels normal again


what should you do with your brakes if you are driving through deep water (e.g. ford or flood)

test your brakes and if needed dry them out by pressing lightly on the brake pedal as you go along


why can hot weather be dangerous?

road surface may become soft and tyres may not grip as well, can affect your braking and steering


if its bright sunlight that dazzles and other drivers can't see your indicators what can you consider doing?

using an arm signal


why are high winds dangerous?

can blow you off course esp on an open stretch of road


which types of vehicles to high winds effect most? (3)

- high-sided vehicles
- motorcyclists
- cyclists


how should you pass high-sided vehicles, motorcyclists, cyclists in high winds?

be careful as can be blown off course by a sudden gust so allow extra room and check your left side as you pass them


what condiditions make skidding more likely?

- wet
- icy


what sign shows you you are on black ice (as it is invisible)?

steering becomes light


how can you reduce the risk of skidding and wheelspin by driving?

- at a low speed
- in as high a gear as possible


how do you reduce the chance of skidding?

scan the road for clues e.g. road signs and markings so your not taken by surprise you can
- slow down gradually before you reach a hazard e.g. bend
- avoid sudden steering movements


what should you do if you do start to skid?

- release the footbrake and reapply gently
- steer smoothly in direction of the skid - e.g. if back of the car skids to the right steer carefully to the right and vice versa


what can ABS (anti-lock braking system) do?

- reduce risk of skidding if you have to brake suddenly
- sensors in the wheel anticipate when it is about to lock
- allows you to contrinue to steers while braking as wheels made to not lock


what should you do if your driving as vehicle with ABS?

- apply footbrake rapidly and firmly
- don't release the brake pedal until you've stopped


when may ABS not be effective?

- if there is surface water
- if there is a loose road surface


what is ABS?

anti-lock braking system


what is ESC?

electronic stability control/programme


what does ESC do?

the function of ABS with traction control system to prevent vehicle from skidding sideways. detects risk of a skid early and provides selective braking intervation


what is a contraflow system?

to put it simply, a contraflow system is defined as a temporary arrangement where traffic flows in the opposite direction to how it should normally flow and is most commonly used on motorways. narrow lanes sometimes and travelling close to oncoming traffic


what should you do when you enter a contraflow system you should

- reduce speed in good time
- choose appropriate lane in good time
- keep correct seperation distance


why shoudl you keep well left before a right-hand bend?

improves view of the road ahead, can see hazards earlier


how do you park safely on a downhill slope?

apply parking brake firmly and turn steering wheel towards the kerb