Introduction to Infectious Diseases Microbes and Microbial Morphology Flashcards Preview

POD Exam 1 > Introduction to Infectious Diseases Microbes and Microbial Morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Infectious Diseases Microbes and Microbial Morphology Deck (65)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

pathogen

A

any disease-causing microorganism

2
Q

primary pathogen

A

cause disease in any host

3
Q

opprotunistic pathogens

A

can only cause disease in hosts with impaired or damaged defense mechansisms

4
Q

infection

A

microorganism penetrates body surfaces, enters host tissue, multiplies, damages tissues, causes host to react with immune response

5
Q

virulence

A

ability of organism to cause disease

6
Q

avirulent

A

organism which cannot cause disease

7
Q

virulence factors/determinants

A

properties or gene products of microorganisms that enhance their disease-producing capabilities

8
Q

examples of virulence factors/determinants

A

colonization
invasion
tissue damage

9
Q

asymptomatic carriage

A

state where infection exists with no clinical symptoms

10
Q

famous example of asymptomatic carriage

A

typhoid mary

11
Q

colonization

A

establishment of microbial growth on body surface

12
Q

humans are exposed to potentially disease-causing agents from 3 general sources:

A

exogenous microbes: human to human
exogenous microbes: animal to human
endogenous agents: normal flora

13
Q

What are 4 types of transmissions for human to human

A

respiratory
salivia
fecal-oral
venereal

14
Q

Zoonotic infections

A

animal to human transmission

15
Q

vector ( biting athropod) ex.

A

ticks spread Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

16
Q

vertebrate reservoirs ex.

A

dogs and bats spread rabies

17
Q

vector-vertebrate reservoir ex.

A

bubonic plaque spread from rats to fleas to man

18
Q

fomites

A

inanimate objects which harbor microorganisms

19
Q

nosocomial infections

A

impaired defense system, poor sanitation in hospitalized patients

20
Q

3 cases where disease results from microbe’s ability to alter normal immune response

A

autoimmunity
superantigens
septic shock

21
Q

autoimmune activation

A

pathogen produces protein similar to host protein ( cross-reactive material), causes host to attack itself

22
Q

superantigens

A

elaboration of superantigens which result in the activation of many T cells

23
Q

when does normal flora become a source of infection

A

microorganism move from normal habitat and invade areas which are sterile or devoid of organism in question

24
Q

sterile tissues

A

microorganisms typically laden absent

25
Q

example of sterile tissue

A

blood
alveoli
muscle

26
Q

where are normal flora generally laden with microbes

A

external surfaces,

skin, GI, upper respiratory

27
Q

going through GI system, what general patterns seen

A

increase number organisms
increase types of species
increases frequency of species

28
Q

4 beneficial effects of normal flora

A

production of vitamin K
occupy Niche
elaboration of bacterial toxins ( kill potential pathogens)
stimulate immune response

29
Q

bacteriocins

A

toxic bacterial proteins that kill other bacteria

30
Q

what are 3 mechanisms for opportunistic infection to present

A

compromised hosts
breach of host surfaces
use of antibiotics

31
Q

how can host be compromised for an opportunistic infection

A
age 
cancer
nutritional status
inherited immune deficiencies
immune suppressive agents 
HIV
32
Q

how does opportunistic infection enter host through breach of normal barriers

A

cuts, surgery
burns
medical devices

33
Q

How can use of an antibiotic allow opportunistic organism proliferate

A

antibiotic wipes out normal flora

34
Q

name 4 postulates for Koch’s postulates

A

1) bacterium should be found in all suffering organisms
2) bacterium isolated and cultured
3) reproduce disease when bacterium enters another organism
4) bacterium isolated and must be same to original bacteriam

35
Q

limitation to #1 of Koch’s postulate

A

human susceptibility to disease may be inherited and so hosts may not be susceptible

36
Q

limitation to #2 of Koch’s postulate

A

late onset (slow virus)

37
Q

limitation to #2 and 3 of Koch’s postulate

A

fastidious organisms are harder to culture, some can’t be cultured at all

38
Q

limitation to #4 of Koch’s postulate

A

ethical issues

39
Q

polymicrobial infections

A

disease caused by combination of pathogens

40
Q

name 2 genreal limitations to Koch’s postulates

A

variability in virulence

polymicrobial infections

41
Q

prokaryotes

A

cells lack a membrane bound nucleus

42
Q

eukarytoes

A

cells with defined nucleus

43
Q

bacteria

A

unicellular prokaryotic organisms

lack nuclear envelope and membrane-bound organelles

44
Q

fungi

A

eukaryotic organisms

defined nucleus, membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles and cell wall

45
Q

yeast

A

unicellular

46
Q

mold

A

mutlicellular and filamentous

47
Q

dimorphic fungi

A

switch from yeast to mold

48
Q

name 3 groups in fungi

A

yeasts
molds
dimorphic fungi

49
Q

parasites (broad definition)

A

prokaryotic, eukaryotic or viral organism
require a living host for at least part of their life cycle
cause disease to host

50
Q

parasites ( narrow definition)

A

any unicellular or mutlicellular eukaryotic organisms that require loving host for at least part of their life cycle and cause disease to host

51
Q

virusus

A

intracellular parasites lack cell structure

require host for cellular replication

52
Q

what do viruses generally consist of

A

nucleic acid genome surrounded by protein coat

53
Q

site of cellular respiration in prokaryotes

eukaryotes

A

cell membrane

mitochondria

54
Q

parasites ( narrow definition) excludes what organisms

A

viruses and bacteria

55
Q

translation begins with what in eurkaryotes? prokaryotes

A

methionine

N-formylmethionie

56
Q

what does host cell provide virus

A

proteins involved in DNA replication, translation, transcription

57
Q

Name 2 types of viral infection

A

lytic cycle

persistent or latent

58
Q

lytic cycle

A

virus invades cells, virus replicates, lyse host cell to release all of the viruses

59
Q

persistent or latent infections

A

host cell harbors viral genome or allow replication of low number of viruses

60
Q

lysogeny

A

bacteriphage lie dormant within the host bacterium

61
Q

genome of virus can be

A

either DNA or RNA (not both)

62
Q

capsid

A

primary outer structure composed of protein of virus

63
Q

name two organisms that are simpler than viruses

A

viroids

prions

64
Q

viroids

A

RNA genome without protein components

65
Q

prions

A

infectious agents consisting only of protein