46-Intro to Medical Microbiology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 46-Intro to Medical Microbiology 2 Deck (63)
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31

Where do viruses grow

Cell culture

32

PCR

Diagnostics For DNA virus

33

Reverse transcriptase PCR

diagnosticsRNA virus

34

Serology

Detection of antibodies to virus

35

Viral latency

Viruses can cause lifelong infection
Herpes 1: oral ulcers
Herpes 2: genital ulcers
VZV: chicken pox/shingles

36

What does innate immunity detect

Nucleic acids
dsRNA: not normal, cells infected by RNA virus that have died
5'triphosphate viral ssRNA: generated during RNA virus replication, recognized by RIG-I

37

M2 protein

Made by flu virus, channel for acidification of virion
Lowers pH and is detected by NLRP3

38

NLRP3

cytosolic protein, detect damage and stimulate cytokine production and stimulate inflammation
Detect non self and damaged self

39

Type 1 interferons

Interfere with viral replication
Impair protein uncoating, replication, protein synthesis
Enhanced antigen presentation

40

What does innate immunity do after detection of virus

Type 1 interferon
Programmed cell death
Activation of neighboring immune cells

41

virulence factors

Specific traits that permit evasion of host immunity

42

Virulence factors in flue

hemagglutinin that permit binding and uptake into respiratory cells
Ability to uncoat
Antigenic shift and drift

43

Epstein Barr virus

Mononucleosis
Herpes virus that transforms infected B lymphocytes into long lived cells (prevent cell death)

44

Virus pathology

Tissue damage and illness due to host response

Too little=uncontrolled replication
Too robust=excessive inflammation and organ damage

45

yeast

Single celled
Round or oval
Reproduce by budding
Candida

46

molds

multicellular
Form hyphae and Candida
Skin infections

47

dimorphic

Switch between yeast and mold

48

Fungi reproduction

asexually and form conidia (spores)

49

fungi

eukaryotes
capsule to inhibit phagocytosis
cell wall
Cell membrane

50

cell wall components in fungus

chitins, glucans, mannins

B-D-glucan syntheses is target for antifungals

51

Cell membrane components in fungus

ergosterol and sterols

Targets for antifungals

52

toxin production from fungus

alatoxicosis from contaminated food
Hypersensitivity/allergy

53

Infection from fungus

Superficial
Cutaneous:tinea pedis
Subcutaneous
Systemic: opportunistic, endemic mycosis

54

Candidiasis

Yeast
Common:C. albicans
Human commensal
Form pseudohyphae to permit survival
Opportunistic-diabetes, antibiotics, ill, neutrophils deficiency

55

Endemic mycoses
histoplasmosis

dimorphic
NOT commensals
In soil in the Midwest
Ingested by macrophages and grow within them

56

Targets of antifungals

Mannans
B-D-glucan
ergosterol

57

parasites

Protozoa
worms

58

protozoa

Single celled
Amebic, ciliated, flagellated, nonmotile

59

malaria

Parasite of red blood cells and liver cells

60

Worms (helminthes)

Nematodes (roundworms)
flatworms cestodes (tapeworms), trematodes (flukes)