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Flashcards in 48-Cytokines Deck (44)
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31

what are the functions of chemokine receptors

inflammatory: movement towards infection
homeostatic: movement before an infection during homeostasis
atypical: silent and act as negative regulators
viral: allow pathogens to modulate immune responses

32

Classical cytokine family receptor

JAK/STAT, heterodimeric or trimeric

33

Classical cytokine family action

activation of JAK kinases to phosphorylate STAT, lots of functions

34

Type I Cytokine

Hemopoietin, conserved structural elements
Conserved cysteines, conserved WSXWS, conserved y, conserved B, conserved gp130

differentiation, homeostasis, activation, suppression

35

Type II Cytokine

Interferon
conserved cysteines, use distinct pools of JAK and STAT
antiviral responses

36

Three main classes of drugs targeting cytokine function

actual cytokine: EPO
antibody inhibitors of cytokines (anti-TNF)
small molecule drugs (anti-JAK kinase)

37

How do recombinant cytokines work

15 recombinations
enhance immune function (interferon a, b, y, epo, il-2, il-11, G-CSF, GM-CSF)

38

what is the exception to recombinant cytokines?

anakinra

39

how does anakinra work?

IL-1Ra which inhibits IL-1

40

what is the problem with recombinant cytokines

very powerful and substantial side effects

41

how do antibodies targeting cytokines work?

treat rheumatic disease, target IL-6, Blys, TNF-a, interferon-a

42

what is the problem is antibody cytokine drugs?

increased infection, expensive, not as dangerous because of redundancy and low level activation

43

how do small molecule inhibitors work?

inhibit JAK/STAT

44

what are the problems with small molecule inhibitors?

increased infection, cancer, thrombocytopenia