Flashcards in 48-Cytokines Deck (44)
what are the functions of chemokine receptors
inflammatory: movement towards infection
homeostatic: movement before an infection during homeostasis
atypical: silent and act as negative regulators
viral: allow pathogens to modulate immune responses
Classical cytokine family receptor
JAK/STAT, heterodimeric or trimeric
Classical cytokine family action
activation of JAK kinases to phosphorylate STAT, lots of functions
Type I Cytokine
Hemopoietin, conserved structural elements
Conserved cysteines, conserved WSXWS, conserved y, conserved B, conserved gp130
differentiation, homeostasis, activation, suppression
Type II Cytokine
conserved cysteines, use distinct pools of JAK and STAT
Three main classes of drugs targeting cytokine function
actual cytokine: EPO
antibody inhibitors of cytokines (anti-TNF)
small molecule drugs (anti-JAK kinase)
How do recombinant cytokines work
enhance immune function (interferon a, b, y, epo, il-2, il-11, G-CSF, GM-CSF)
what is the exception to recombinant cytokines?
how does anakinra work?
IL-1Ra which inhibits IL-1
what is the problem with recombinant cytokines
very powerful and substantial side effects
how do antibodies targeting cytokines work?
treat rheumatic disease, target IL-6, Blys, TNF-a, interferon-a
what is the problem is antibody cytokine drugs?
increased infection, expensive, not as dangerous because of redundancy and low level activation
how do small molecule inhibitors work?