6) Fat, Carbohydrate, Water, Mineral, Electrolyte, and Vitamin Requirements in Pregnancy Flashcards Preview

Nutrition through life Val > 6) Fat, Carbohydrate, Water, Mineral, Electrolyte, and Vitamin Requirements in Pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6) Fat, Carbohydrate, Water, Mineral, Electrolyte, and Vitamin Requirements in Pregnancy Deck (133)
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1

How does BMR vary during pregnancy?

Increase

2

What two factors explain for the increase in BMR during pregnancy?

1) Metabolic contributions of the uterus and fetus
2) Increase in work of the lungs and heart

3

What is the strongest predictor of BMR? Why?

- Fat-free mass (FFM)
- Because fat mass is not metabolically active

4

What are the three components of FFM in pregnancy?

1) An increase in blood volume
2) Skeletal muscle mass
3) Fetal and uterine tissues

5

Which component of FFM
during pregnancy is low energy-requiring?

An increase in blood volume

6

Which component of FFM
during pregnancy is moderate energy-requiring?

Skeletal muscle mass

7

Which component of FFM
during pregnancy is high energy-requiring?

Fetal and uterine tissue

8

By late pregnancy, half of the increment of energy expenditure can be attributed to ________.

the fetus

9

What are the two additional energy requirements for pregnancy?

1) Energy required to provide for the growth of tissues
2) Energy required for the maintenance of new tissues

10

How may the energy cost of new tissue deposition be calculated during pregnancy?

- From the amount of protein and fat deposited throughout the pregnancy
- The quantity of protein and fat gained are converted to calories
- The total number of kilocalories gained during pregnancy is divided by the duration of pregnancy

11

Why is there an increase in the requirement of energy per gram to synthesize protein and fat?

The synthesis of protein and fat requires the addition of energy

12

How does PAL vary during pregnancy?

Decrease

13

How does TEE vary during pregnancy?

Increase

14

What is the median increase of TEE per gestational week?

8 kilocalories

15

The EER during pregnancy is the sum of which three components?

1) TEE of the woman in a non-pregnant state
2) Median change in TEE of 8 kcals/week
3) Energy deposition of 180 kcals/day

16

What is the additional energy requirement, in calories, during the first trimester?

- There is little weight gain and variation in TEE
- There is no additional energy required

17

What is the additional energy requirement, in calories, during the second trimester?

340 kilocalories

18

What is the additional energy requirement, in calories, during the third trimester?

452 kilocalories

19

What weeks does the first trimester correspond to?

Weeks 1 to 12

20

What weeks does the second trimester correspond to?

Weeks 13 to 27

21

What weeks does the third trimester correspond to?

Week 28 to birth

22

Which week is used for the multiplication of the TEE during the SECOND trimester to derive the additional energy requirements?

- Week 20 (midpoint of the second trimester)
- 8 kilocalories x 20 weeks

23

Which week is used for the multiplication of the TEE during the THIRD trimester to derive the additional energy requirements?

- Week 34 (midpoint of the third trimester)
- 8 kilocalories x 34 weeks

24

What two factors are the basis of the additional protein requirements during pregnancy?

1) The support in growth of maternal and fetal tissues
2) Maintenance of additional protein stores

25

Why do protein requirements vary with each trimester?

Due to differences in protein needs for growth and maintenance of the additional protein accretion that has accumulated by the end of each trimester

26

What is the estimate of protein requirements during pregnancy based on?

Growth and body composition at the end of each trimester

27

What is the additional protein requirement during the first trimester?

- There is low deposition of tissue during the first trimester
- There is NO increase in protein requirement

28

What is the additional protein requirement during the second and third trimesters? How is it determined?

- EAR: 21 grams of protein per day
- RDA: 25 grams of protein per day
- The additional pregnancy protein requirement during the second and third trimesters are averaged to devise the EAR

29

How is protein and energy related to low-birth weight infants?

Improving protein and energy nutrition during gestation, and prior to gestation, decreases the risk of low-birth weight infants

30

Where may omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids be acquired to become incorporated into placental and fetal tissue?

Obtained from maternal tissues or through dietary intake