Flashcards in 7) Lactation and Breastfeeding (Part I) Deck (103)
Why may breastfeeding be referred to as exterior gestation?
As it provides continuity in terms of security and nourishment between the mother and infant
What occurs to progesterone and estrogen secretion following parturition?
They decrease significantly, while other hormones rise to stimulate the secretion of milk
What is the magic hour?
The recommendation that infants be placed in contact with the mother's breast as soon as possible
Why is a support system crucial for successful long-term breastfeeding?
As psychological inhibitions (e.g. an unsupportive family) may decrease the flow of milk
Which conditions may result in the need of tube-feeding for the baby?
- Low-birth weight infant or neurologically impaired infant
- They are not able to suckle properly on the breast
What stimulates the production of milk? By what cells?
- The suckling stimulus stimulates the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary
- Stimulates milk production by alveolar cells in mammary glands
What is the function of oxytocin in milk let-down?
- Oxytocin is released from the posterior pituitary
- Stimulates myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland to contract
How does breastfeeding suppress ovulation?
- Decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone
- Increased levels of prolactin
- The rate of breastfeeding must be maintained to prevent ovulation
When should the mother think of using other methods of contraceptives?
When the baby starts to sleep through the night
How does breastfeeding influence the size of the uterus?
- Breastfeeding stimulates the contraction of the uterus
- Results in the involution of the uterus through oxytocin release
What are four advantages of breastfeeding? (4)
1) May aid in proper jaw and tooth development
2) Bacteriologically safe, always fresh, and contains anti-infectious agents
3) Nutritionally superior
4) Associated with a lower risk of food allergies
Provide examples of milk compartments.
- Membrane-bound globules
- Live cells
- Non-protein nitrogen compounds
- Trace elements
What are the three sources of milk components?
1) Transferred from maternal plasma
2) Synthesized from maternal secretory (alveolar) cells from maternal plasma precursors
3) Synthesized from other mammary cells in situ
What are the three phases of milk production? When do they occur?
1) Colostrum (5 to 7 days)
2) Transitional milk (7 days to 3-4 weeks)
3) Mature milk
How does colostrum compare to mature milk? (2)
1) High in protein and mineral content
2) Lower in energy, fat, and lactose content
What quantity of milk does colostrum provide? What does it ressemble?
- The quantity is very small (2-10 mL feeding per day)
- Intense transparent yellow fluid
What explains the intense transparent yellow fluid of colostrum?
Colostrum contains 10 times the carotenoid content of mature milk
How does transitional milk vary from colostrum?
1) Quantity of protein decreases to a consistent level
2) Increase in lactose and fat
How does mature milk vary?
According to the changing infant's needs (i.e. the time of day, or depending on the age of the child)
What is the composition of foremilk? Why?
- Contains a high quantity of water and lactose
- Due to the increased hydration needs of the child
What is the composition of hindmilk?
Higher in fat and calories
Why are women advised to empty one breast before moving on to the next one?
To provide the infant with a greater quantity of hindmilk, and, thus, a greater quantity of fat to aid in brain development
What are the three immunological properties of breast milk?
1) May have a direct action against pathogens
2) Modulate the immune response
3) Promote the growth and maturation of the GI tract
How do the immunological factors contained in breast milk compare to cow's milk and infant formula?
- Most immune factors are not found in infant formula
- Lower concentrations are found in cow's milk
How are whey proteins structurally different than caseins?
They are resistant against proteolysis and acid denaturation
Why are whey proteins resistant against proteolysis and acid denaturation?
Because they contain anti-proteases (e.g. sulfhydryl oxidases)
What is the major function of anti-proteases in whey protein?
- May protect bioactive proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins by preserving their disulfide bonds
- Whey proteins contain multiple disulfide bonds, providing a rigid structure that is difficult to digest by proteases
What are the abundant antibodies in breast milk directed against?
- Bacterial toxins
- Food proteins that may cause allergies
Which antibodies are contained within the mammary gland?