Flashcards in 9) Infancy and Childhood Deck (129)
During which childhood periods are weight gain extremely rapid?
- During the first year of life
- During the adolescent growth spurt
What are growth charts used for?
To analyze length and weight measurements
How are growth charts used?
- They are NOT diagnostic
- They are used in concert with other information to assess general health
How do breastfed infants at 3 to 4 months compare to bottle-fed infants in terms of weight and height?
- Similar height
- Breastfed infants have a lower weight
- Natural differences
Do growth charts apply to all children in terms of race and ethnicity?
- Yes, these differences are relatively minor on growth
- Health and environmental influences have a greater influence on growth
What are the three eating developmental patterns?
1) Nursing Period
2) Transitional Period
3) Modified Adult Period
When does the nursing period occur?
During the first four to six months
What is the nursing period characterized by?
Breast milk and/or infant formula forms the complete source of nutrition for the infant
When does the transitional period occur?
From six to 10 months
What is the transitional period characterized by?
The introduction of semi-solid foods with high milk consumption
When does the modified adult occur?
After 10 months
What is the modified adult period characterized by?
The infant may consume most adult-type foods with modifications (e.g. cutting into smaller pieces)
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for how many months?
Until when is cow's milk not recommended to be consumed?
Until the first year
What type of cow's milk is recommended for young infants (above 9 months)? Until when?
- Full-fat (3.25%) at a maximum quantity of 750 mL per day
- Until after the child reaches 2 years of age
Why is low-fat milk not recommended for children under the age of two?
Lower in energy, vitamin and EFA content
How does the distribution of energy-yielding macronutrients differ between human milk and infant formula?
They are similar
How does the distribution of energy-yielding macronutrients differ between human milk and the recommended adult diet?
- Breast milk: 55% fat
- Adult diet: 30% fat
What are the associated risks with under-dilution of formula?
May increase the risk of dehydration and metabolic acidosis
How may under-dilution of formula increase the risk of dehydration and metabolic acidosis?
- An excess of protein and solutes are provided to the infant
- Results in hypernatremia and an increased strain on the kidneys
What kind of water must be used to make formula? How is it obtained?
- Sterile water (pathogen-free)
- Brought to a rolling-boil for 2 minutes
Should infant formula be microwaved?
No, as it results in hot spots in the milk, which may cause burns
What is Nursing Bottle Syndrome?
- Results when an infant is put to bed with bottles containing fluids other than water
- Milk or juice pools in the infant's mouth while sleeping, resulting in severe dental caries
Which vitamins are deficient in goat's milk?
- Folic acid
- Vitamin B6
- Vitamin B12
How does the protein content of goat's milk compare to breast milk or formula? What is the effect?
- Higher in protein
- Increases the risk of dehydration and higher renal solute load (strain on kidneys)
How does the calcium and phosphorus content of goat's milk compare to breast milk or formula? What is the effect?
- Low calcium to phosphorus ratio
- Increases the risk of hyperphosphatemia tetany
How does the energy content of plant-based beverages compare to breast milk or formula? What is the effect?
- Low-energy density
- Results in failure to thrive and infant malnutrition
Which vitamin is deficient in plant-based beverages?
How does the manganese content of plant-based beverages compare to breast milk or formula? What is the effect?
- Higher than the UL for manganese
- Increases the risk of neurotoxicity and learning disabilities