Flashcards in Midterm II Review Deck (27)
How does the recommendation for pantothenic acid vary during pregnancy?
- The AI increases because the intake of pregnant women is higher
- However, the requirement does not increase
Which factor demonstrates that there is no additional phosphorus requirement during pregnancy?
Likely due to the 10% increase in phosphorus absorption in the intestine during pregnancy
Which minerals does lactalbumin supply?
Calcium and zinc
Which minerals does alkaline phosphatase supply?
Zinc and magnesium
What are the two major proteins in human milk?
- Serum albumin
Why is soy milk protein not recommended for infant consumption?
- Lower bioavailability of minerals (zinc, calcium, iron), as phytic acid complexes with these minerals, which prevents their absorption
- Decreased calcium and phosphorus retention
- Decreased bone density
How does colostrum provide protective effects against milk allergies?
- Infants have leaky junctions within their GI tract, which allows antigens to pass through
- Colostrum hastens the closure of leaky junctions
How does pre-term milk compare to term milk?
- Pre-term milk is higher in energy, protein, sodium and chloride
- Pre-term milk is lower in lactose
What is the effect of smoking in breast milk?
Decreases milk volume
What is galactosemia?
- Rare autosomal recessive disorder
- Causes a deficiency in 1-P-uridyl transferase
- Infants with galactosemia may not consume breast milk
What are the effects of botulinum spores in children?
- Decreased feeding
- Respiratory distress
Children consuming a low-fat diet are at an increased risk of which micronutrient deficiencies?
- Vitamin A
What characteristics allow for the differential diagnosis of feeding problems?
- No weight gain or weight loss for over a month
- No underlying medical or mental conditions
- Not lacking available food
- Condition emerges before 6th birthday
Give three examples of foods that should be introduced upon the beginning of the weaning period.
- Mashed potatoes
- Mashed vegetables
- Diced bananas
- Soft, mashed table food
Give three examples of foods that should be introduced upon the development of palmar grasp.
- Dried toast
- Teething biscuits
- Cheese sticks
- Finger feeding (large pieces of food)
Give three examples of foods that should be introduced upon the development of voluntary release (refined digital grasp).
- Cottage cheese
- Dry cereal
- Finger feeding (small pieces of food)
Give three examples of foods that should be introduced upon the development of the rotary chewing pattern.
- Chopped meats
- More textured foods from the family menu
Give three examples of foods that should be introduced upon the beginning of self-feeding.
- Mashed potatoes
- Food that can be scooped with a spoon
Give an example of foods that should be introduced upon the ulnar deviation of the wrist.
Raw vegetables and fruits
Give an example of foods that should be available when an infant is walking alone.
Food of high-nutrient value
Name 4 effects associated with maternal iron deficiency anemia.
- Low-birth weight infants
- Maternal perinatal mortality
- Infant perinatal mortality
- Pre-term birth
How does pantothenic acid vary during pregnancy?
- The AI increases
- BUT, not because of increased requirement
Name 5 reasons why breastfeeding is nutritionally superior to formula or cow's milk.
1) Non-protein nitrogen
2) Whey to casein ratio
3) Calcium to phosphate ratio
Name 3 milk feeding risks.
2) Nursing bottle syndrome
3) Underdilution of formula
What are the three age groups for dietary fat intake in children?
1) Preschool and childhood
2) Early adolescence
3) Once linear growth has stopped
Name 5 practices that should be adopted in infants to prevent infant feeding issues.
1) Serve small portions
2) Avoid distractions
3) Don't serve dessert until done
4) Allow the child to have choices
5) Serve in a relaxed manner