Flashcards in 4) Energy and Protein Requirements for Adults Deck (58)
Define the EER.
The average dietary energy intake that will maintain energy balance in a healthy person of a given gender, age, weight, height, and physical activity level, consistent with good health
What does EER stand for?
Estimated energy requirement
How does the EER fluctuate with growth, pregnancy, and lactation?
The EER takes into account the energy content of new body constituents
What criteria do energy recommendations depend on?
That the individual's body weight is within the healthy range and in energy balance
In a weight-stable individual, what must the energy intake be equal to?
What does TEE stand for?
Total Energy Expenditure
Define the BMR.
- The minimal amount of energy expenditure compatible with life
- Energy needed to maintain body function at rest (e.g. breathing, temperature control, cell growth)
What does BMR stand for? What is an equivalent term?
- Basal Metabolic Rate
- BEE (Basal Energy Expenditure)
How is the BMR measured?
In the supine position under standard conditions of rest, fasting, immobility, thermoneutrality, and mental relaxation
How is the BMR/BEE expressed?
Kilocalories per hour
Define the TEE.
The energy spent, on average, in a 24-hour period by an individual or a group of individuals
Does the TEE represent the quantity of energy spent per day?
- The TEE reflects the AVERAGE amount of energy spent in a typical day
- Does NOT represent the exact quantity of energy spent each and every day
What ratio is used to calculate PAL?
The ratio of TEE/BMR
What does PAL stand for?
Physical activity level
In adult men, non-pregnant women, and non-lactating women, what equation can derive the TEE?
TEE = BMR x PAL
What recommended PAL provides certain health benefits, but not enough to maintain a healthy body weight?
A minimum of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity most days of the week
What recommended PAL prevents weight gain and provides additional health benefits?
60 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day (for both adults and children)
What does moderate intensity physical activity include?
- Walking at a pace of 4 mph
- Light housekeeping
In terms of numbers, what is the recommended PAL?
1.6 to 1.7
What do the PAL categories depend on?
The reference weight of the individual
How does the number of miles walked per day to reach the same PAL category differ between a light-weight individual and a middle-weight individual? Why?
- Light-weight individuals need to walk more miles per day than middle-weight individuals
- Because middle-weight individuals burn more energy due to the greater amount of weight that they are carrying
What is PAL converted to in order to calculate an individual's energy requirements?
PAL is converted to physical activity coefficients (PA), using reference tables
Are physical activity coefficients lower or higher than PALs?
PAs are always lower than PALs (except if the physical activity is sedentary, in which case they are both 1.00)
What parameters do EER equations include?
- Physical activity coefficient
Which unit system does the EER equation utilize?
The metric system
Is there an RDA for for energy? Why or why not?
There is no RDA for energy, as any excess of energy intake results in weight gain
How were EER equations derived?
- Data and studies gathered on total energy expenditure
- Measured using the doubly labeled water technique
How do you convert feet to meters?
Meters = Feet/3.28
How do you convert inches to meters?
Meters = Inches/39.4