Flashcards in 12) Adulthood and the Elderly (Part I) Deck (121)
When does young adulthood occur?
Between 20 to 35 years old
When does middle adulthood occur?
50 to 69 years old
The stage at which growth and sexual maturity are complete
When is sexual maturity reached? When is physiological maturity reached?
- Sexual maturity: teenage years
- Physiological maturity: early 30s
What is physiological maturity?
The achievement of maximum height and the formation of peak bone mass
How does muscle mass vary throughout an individual's life span?
Increases until 30s, then gradually declines
When does the loss of trabecular bone mass begin?
In an individual's 30s
How does anabolism compare to catabolism prior to adulthood, during adulthood, and after the age of 30?
- Prior to adulthood: anabolism > catabolism
- Adulthood: anabolism = catabolism
- After the age of 30: catabolism > anabolism
When are maximal strength, endurance and agility reached?
Five years after reaching maximum height
What may aid in slowing down catabolism related to aging?
Why is there an increased propensity of accumulating body weight and fat during middle adulthood?
- A decrease in muscle mass decreases BMR
- A decrease in BMR decreases caloric requirements
- An adjustment to caloric requirements must be made
In both sexes, the average body weight increases until reaching their ___.
Weight gain (accelerates/decelerates) with age.
How do obesity rates vary throughout the life span?
Increase until 65 years old, then subsequently decline
What is a greater waistline associated with?
An increased risk of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease
Which sex is at a greater risk of obesity? Why?
Women due to a greater fat mass and lower lean-body mass
Which sex actually possesses a lower obesity rate? How does that vary across the life cycles?
- Women possess a lower obesity rate
- Except when they hit 75 years old
A BMI greater than __ is the upper limit beyond which the morbidity of obesity becomes a concern due to weight-related diseases.
Give examples of weight-related diseases.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Liver disease
- Certain cancers (prostate, colon, breast)
Which diseases does the diet contribute significantly?
- Heart disease
Which diseases are there a strong, but not clearly identified, nutrition effects?
What are the effects of our society's shift from our natural diet? What is the composition of our current diet?
- Greater intake of animal fats
- Decreased quantities of complex carbohydrates and fiber
- These diets are linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and dental caries
What was the purpose of the Mozaffarian (2016) study?
Combined several meta-analyses to determine the effects of certain foods on death from coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes
What is the relative risk?
The ratio of the probability of an event occurring (i.e. disease) in an exposed group (consuming the food) to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group
What does a relative risk lower than 1 indicate?
Individuals consuming the food have a LOWER risk than individuals not consuming the food
What was the purpose of the Micha & al. (2010) study?
Analyzed the risk of coronary heart disease associated with the quantity of red meat and processed meat
What was the conclusion of the Micha & al. (2010) study?
- Red meat does not have an effect on the risk of CHD
- Processed meat does have an effect
How does the nutritional content of red meat and processed meat differ?
Processed meats are higher in sodium and nitrate-derivatives
What harmful effect does grilling red meat produce?
Linked with the production of heterocyclic amines, producing a carcinogenic effect