Flashcards in 12) Adulthood and the Elderly (Part II) Deck (124)
When does the number of functional taste buds decrease?
60 years of age
What are the consequences of a decrease in the number of functional taste buds?
- Decreases the capacity to taste and smell
- Reduces appetite
- Decreases palatability
- Decreases food intake
- Prescribed diets are low in taste
What are the components of saliva?
- Glycoprotein enzymes
- Anti-bacterial compounds (IgA, lysozyme)
What are the three primary functions of saliva?
1) Initiates the process of digestion of dietary starches and fats
2) Play a role in protection against dental caries
3) Lubricates food, allowing for the initiation of swallowing
What is xerostomia?
Xerostomia is present in 20% of the elderly. What are possible causes? (2)
- Drug intake (anti-hypertensives, anti-depressants, bronchodilators)
- Disease (e.g. autoimmune disease)
What are the effects of a decrease in salivary secretion?
Increases the risk of infections and ulcers
What is the effect of a decreased ability to swallow (dysphagia) due to a decreased salivary secretion?
May result in a decreased food intake
What is a likely consequence of a decrease in esophageal function?
What are causes of dysphagia? (3)
- CNS changes
- Diabetic neuropathy
- Parkinson's disease
An individual is prone to dysphagia if there is impaired __________ function.
Choking increases the risk of which disease? Why?
- Food may be aspirated into the lungs
- Choking is one of the leading causes of death among the elderly population
What are the primary functions of gastric acid?
- Acts as a chemical barrier against pathogenic colonization
- Facilitates food digestion
What does the stomach lining contain to protect from gastric acid? What occurs if these mechanisms fail?
- A layer of thick mucus containing sodium bicarbonate
- Heartburn or peptic ulcers may develop
Which gastric functions are impaired due to aging?
- Decrease in gastric acid production
- Decrease in parietal cell mass
- Decrease in the maintenance of commensal flora bacteria
What are the effects of a decrease in pepsin due to aging?
- Decreases proteolysis
- Results in a decreased vitamin B12 exposure to intrinsic factor
- Decreased absorption of vitamin B12
What are the effects of hypochlorhydria due to aging?
- Increase in pH in the proximal small intestine
- Causes bacterial overgrowth of the small GI (streptococci, lactobacilli)
What is the effect of bacterial overgrowth of the small GI?
These bacteria compete for B-vitamins, which decreases optimal nutrient availability
Dyspepsia increases the risk of ______.
What are the functions of the liver?
- Glycogen storage
- Decomposition of RBCs
- Plasma protein synthesis
- Hormone production
Why is the elderly highly susceptible to drug-related toxicity?
The liver no longer has the capacity to metabolize compounds properly due to a reduced production of drug-metabolizing enzymes
What are the effects of a decrease in bile production with age?
- Increases food intolerance (fatty foods)
- Increases GI distress, causing gas, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
What are the effects of a decrease in the functioning sections of the pancreas with age?
A decrease in digestive enzyme production and nutrient absorption in the small intestine may occur with age, particularly if there is an underlying chronic disease
What are causes of an increased risk of constipation in the elderly?
- Low-fiber intake due to food intolerance
- Difficulty consuming fibrous foods
What are the effects of diverticulosis?
- May lead to diverticulosis (bleeding and bowel obstruction)
Which nutrient deficiencies are related to lactose intolerance?
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin B2
What are functions of the kidney?
- Regulation of electrolytes
- Maintaining acid/base balance
- Regulating blood pressure
The renal mass decreases by 30% by __ years of age.
What are the effects of a decrease in renal mass?
1) Decreases renal function
2) Decreases the capacity to excrete waste products from diets with a high intake of protein or electrolytes