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Flashcards in 7,8,9,10 Deck (104):
1

Partition that separates the rt and lt chambers.

Septum.

2

Initiates electrical impulse.

SA node.

3

Blood vessels that develop to provide an alternative route around an obstruction.

Collaterals.

4

Dilating an artery with a balloon.

Angioplasty.

5

Most common congenital cardiac defect.

Atrial septal defect.

6

Congenital narrowing of aorta.

Coarctation.

7

Accumulation of fatty material (plaque)

Atherosclerosis.

8

Chest pain resulting from mild ischemia.

Angina.

9

Systole

Contraction.

10

Diastole

Relaxation.

11

Hypertension numbers?

140/90 and above.

12

Unknown cause.

Idiopathic.

13

The inability of the heart to provide the body with an adequate blood supply.

CHF.

14

What causes CHF?

Heart attack
High blood pressure.

15

Radiographic appearance of CHF?

Enlarged heart (cardiomedley)

16

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs.

Pulmonary Edema.

17

What is pulmonary edema caused by?

CHF

18

Radiography appearance of pulmonary edema?

Overall "congested" appearance of lungs.

19

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space.

Pleural effusion.

20

Radiographic appearance of pleural effusion?

Blunting if the costophrenic angles.

21

What is an aneurysm?

A localized dilatation of an artery - an abnormal bulging.

22

The layers of aorta.

Intima
Muscular media
Admentisha

23

Atherosclerosis of the what can lead to a MI?

Coronary arteries.

24

Atherosclerosis of the what can lead to CVA?

Cerebral arteries.

25

Arteriosclerosis.

Hardening of the arteries.

26

What can cause a thrombosis?

A-fib
Lesion ruptures
Iatrogenic- caused by a physician
Blood disorder.

27

A blockage of a blood vessel caused by an object that has migrated from somewhere else in the body.

Embolism.

28

Most common kind of embolism?

Thrombus.

29

A thrombus from the left ventricle can travel where?

Brain
Kidney
Or other organs.

30

Two types of embolisms?

Fat
Air

31

An inflammatory disease that can develop 2-3 weeks after certain infections.

Rheumatic fever.

32

Symptoms of rheumatic fever?

Fever
Inflamed and painful joints
Rash.

33

Rheumatic heart disease can cause damage to?

Mitral and aortic valves.

34

The damage from rheumatic heart disease can lead to?

Stenosis
Insufficiency.

35

The valve does not close properly and blood leaks through when it should be closed.

Insufficiency.

36

Accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space.

Pericardial effusion.

37

Where is the pericardial space?

Space between parietal and visceral pericardium.

38

What is performed to remove fluid from the pericardial space?

Pericardiocentesis

39

Deep venous thrombosis?

Primarily involves the lower extremities.
(Primary source of pulmonary embolism)

40

DVT is caused by?

Trauma
Bacterial infection
Prolonged bed rest
Oral contraceptives.

41

Dilated, tortuous vessels?

Varicose veins.

42

Supply's blood to all tissues of the body.

Cardiovascular system.

43

CNS

Brain
Spinal cord.

44

Brain

Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Brainstem

45

Largest part of the brain.

Cerebrum.

46

Gyri?

Elevations

47

Sulci?

Grooves.

48

Deep groove that divides cerebrum into rt/lt hemispheres.

Longitudinal sulcus (fissure)

49

A food of dura mater that lies within the fissure, changes in its normal position often indicate pathology.

Falx cerebri.

50

Rt/Lt hemispheres connected by?

Corpus callosum.

51

Located posterior and under cerebrum.

Cerebellum.

52

Brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata.

53

Portion of the brain that connects the pins and spinal cord at level of the foramen magnum.

Medulla oblongata.

54

Spinal cord extends from where to where?

Brain to L1/L2 disk space.

55

Pointed at end of spinal cord.

Conus medullaris.

56

Spinal nerves below the termination of spinal cord?

Cauda equina (horses tail)

57

Describe the meninges.

Bone
Epidural space
Dura mater
Subdural space
Arachnoid
Subarachnoid space
Pia mater

58

An area of the subarachnoid space that is increases in width, located at the base of brain.

Cisterna magna.

59

Four cerebral spinal fluid containing cavities of the brain.

Right and left ventricles

Third and Fourth ventricles.

60

An injection into the subarachnoid space.

Intrathecal injection.

61

Subarachnoid

Intrathecal

62

Does not break apart into ions.

Nonionic

63

What contrasted is used.

Water soluble
Nonionic
Iodinated.

64

Why is a myelography preformed?

To demonstrate spinal cord compression

65

Inflammation of the meningitis

Meningitis

66

What is necessary to determine the cause of meningitis?

Spinal tap.

67

Inflammation of the brain?

Encephalitis.

68

Abscess encapsulated collection of pus.

Brain abscess.

69

How is a brain abscess shown?

As a mass on CT & MRI

70

Accumulation of pus between dura and arachnid.

Subdural empyema.

71

Accumulation of pus between skull and dura

Epidural empyema.

72

Inflammation of the bone.

Osteomyelitis.

73

Radiographic appearance of osteomyelitis.

Multiple, small areas of lucency.

74

Bleed between skull and dura due to trauma; radiopaque.

Epidural hematoma.

75

Bleed between dura and arachnid due to trauma; radiopaque.

Subdural hematoma.

76

Injury to the brain tissue after trauma to the skull.

Cerebral contusion.

77

Bleed in the brain tissue; radiopaque.

Intracerebral hematoma.

78

Best modality to see skull fractures?

CT

79

Air seen in orbital soft tissues indicates?

Fracture of ethmoid.

80

Opacification of maxillary sinus indicates?

Fracture of the orbital floor.

81

Any abnormality of the blood vessels to or of the brain?

Cerebrovascular disease.

82

An area of necrosis in an organ. (Caused by ischemia)

Infarction.

83

The initial appearance of ischemic stroke is within?

8-24 hours.

84

TIA's resolve in?

24 hours.

85

Radiographic appearance of a hemorrhagic stroke on a cruise scan?

Radiopaque.

86

Radiographic appearance of an old hemorrhagic stroke on a cruise scan?

Radiolucent.

87

Idiopathic disease that destroys the myelin around the brain tissue.

MS

88

A fatty layer that surrounds the brain matter.

Myelin.

89

Areas that are demyelinated are referred to as?

Lesions.

90

Petit mal

Mild muscular twitching.

91

Grand mal

Convulsions, foaming at the mouth, loss of control of urine.

92

Enlargement of the ventricular system as a result of atrophy of surrounding brain tissue.

Normal aging.

93

Progressive atrophy and dementia at an earlier age than normal.

Alzheimer's disease.

94

Characterized by involuntary tremor.

Parkinson's disease.

95

Loss of motor function. Leads to paralysis and weakness of respiratory function.

Lou Gehrig's disease.

96

Dilation of the ventricular system caused by obstruction of flow of CHF.

Hydrocephalus.

97

System that makes blood.

Hematopoietic system.

98

Two tissues that make blood.

Red bone marrow
Lymph nodes.

99

Where is red bone marrow found?

Heads of longs bones
Flat bones (aka of illium, sternum, scapula, skull, ribs, and vertebrae)

100

Blood is made of up?

Blood cells
Plasma.

101

3 types of blood cells

Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets.

102

The system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

Endocrine system

103

4 major endocrine glands

Adrenal- top of kidneys
Pituitary- Stella tarcia
Thyroid- neck
Paratyroid- inside thyroid.

104

Chemicals released by a gland in one part of the body that affect a different part of the body.

Hormones.