Chapter 1, 2 (Pathology) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1, 2 (Pathology) Deck (78):
1

Disease?

An abnormal condition of the body.

2

Infectious?

Caused by a bacteria, virus or fungus.

3

Acquired?

Develops after birth.

4

Metabolic?

Disturbance of normal functions of the body. (diabetes).

5

Neoplastic?

Formation of tumors.

6

Iatrogenic?

Caused by the physician.

7

Idiopathic?

No known cause.

8

Signs for disease?

Changes that are measurable, objective.

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Symptoms for disease?

Changes that are not measurable, subjective.

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Nosocomial infections?

Acquired while hospitalized.

11

Community acquired infections?

Acquired outside of the hospital.

12

Inflammation?

The vascular response to bodily injury.

13

5 clinical signs of inflammation?

1. Redness
2. Heat
3. Swelling
4. Pain
5. Loss of fiction.

14

What is granuloma?

Usually in the lung, where fibrous scar tissue replaces the injured tissues, indicates an area of old inflammation.

15

What is infection?

Invasion of the body by a disease causing bacteria, virus, or fungus. Caused by a pathogen.

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Infections cause what?

Inflammation.

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Can you have inflammation without infection?

Yes.

18

What is edema?

Accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid.

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What is localized edema?

Restricted to a particular location.

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What is generalized edema?

Pronounced swelling throughout the body.

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In generalized edema, what can gravity cause?

Fluid to collect around the ankles.

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Pulmonary edema?

Edema in lungs.

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Pleural effusion?

Edema in the pleural space.

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Pericardial effusion?

Edema in the pericardial space.

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Peritoneal ascites?

Edema in the peritoneal space.

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What is ischemia?

A decreased supply of blood to an organ.

27

What causes ischemia?

Narrowing of an artery, occlusion of artery.

28

What is infarct?

Tissue death due to ischemia.

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What is Necrosis?

An area of dead tissue.

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What is a hemorrhage?

Massive bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel.

31

What is an external hemorrhage?

Can see the blood leave body.

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What is an internal hemorrhage?

A blood vessel is torn and blood is filling the surrounding space, cannot see it.

33

Hemothorax?

Blood in the pleural space.

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What is hemopericardium?

Blood in the pericardial space.

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What is hemoperitoneum?

Blood in the peritoneal space.

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What is hemarthrosis?

Blood in the joint.

37

Hematoma?

A collection of extravasated blood under the skin.

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What is extravasation?

Leakage of fluid from a blood vessel into surrounding tissue. (Superficial you can see) (Deep you cannot - brain)

39

Atrophy?

Decreased in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue. (Arm in cast)

40

Hypertrophy?

Increase in size.

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Hypoplasia and Aplasia? (same thing)

Small size due to abnormal growth and development.

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What is hyperplasia?

Increase in the number of cells.

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*** What is Dysplasia?

Abnormal growth or development.

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What is Neoplasia?

New growth.

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What is Neoplasms?

Tumors.

46

What is Oncology?

Study of tumors.

47

What does Benign mean?

Non cancerous. (Can still cause problems)

48

*** What is Fibroma?

Benign tumor of fibrous tissue.

49

*** What is Chondroma?

Benign tumor of cartilage.

50

*** What is Adenoma?

Benign tumor of glandular tissue.

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*** What is Cystadenoma?

Benign tumor of cysts.

52

*** What is Limpoma?

Benign tumor of fat.

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*** What is Myoma?

Benign tumor of muscle.

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*** What is Angioma?

Benign tumor of blood vessels.

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*** What is Granuloma?

Area of old inflammation.

56

What does Malignant mean?

Cancerous.

57

3 main cancers Sharron wants us to know?

1. Carcinoma
2. Sarcoma
3. Leukemia

58

What is cancer?

Uncontrolled growth of destructive cells.

59

What does metastasize mean?

To spread to other sites.

60

What is Carcinogen?

Something that causes cancer. (Cigarettes, sun, x-Rays)

61

When describing a tumor, what does differentiated mean?

Well defined.

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When describing a tumor, what does undifferentiated mean?

Not well defined, bizarre patterns.

63

What is Lymphatic spread?

Cancer spread by the way of the lymphatic system.

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What is Hematogenous spread?

Cancer spread by way of the blood vessels.

65

Treatments for cancer?

Surgery
Radiation Therapy
Hormonal Therapy
Chemotherapy

66

What is a Adhesion?

Scar tissue that binds together two pieces of anatomy that are normally separate. (Usually in the abdomen)

67

What does chronic mean?

Developing slowly and persisting for a long period.

68

What does acute mean?

Sudden onset.

69

What is Etiology?

The study of the cause of disease.

70

What is diagnosis?

Identification of a disease.

71

What is Prognosis?

The prediction of the course of outcome of a disease.

72

What is a lesion?

Generic term used to describe the many types of cellular that can occur in response to disease.

73

What is bacteremia?

The presence of bacteria in the blood.

74

What is Pyogenic bacteria?

Bacteria that leads to the formation of pus.

75

What is an abscess?

A localized, usually encapsulated, collection of pus.

76

What is a localized abscess?

Confined, restricted to a particular location.

77

What is an encapsulated abscess?

Surrounded by a membrane.

78

Pathology?

Study of disease.