Flashcards in Skeletal Test Deck (121):
What is articular cartilage?
Cartilage that lines the bones at the joint.
What is the diaphysis?
Shaft of bone.
What is Epiphysis?
Ends of bone.
Why is Metaphysis?
Where the diaphysis and epiphyses meet.
What the medullary cavity?
Hollow area within diaphysis; contains bone marrow.
What is cortex?
Outer layer of bone (periosteum)
What is spongy bone?
Inner bone; the trabeculae
Is cartilage seen on an x ray?
What is the epiphyseal plate?
Plate of bone of cartilage that separates the epiphyses from the diaphysis in children; the growth plate.
What is osteoblasts?
Cells that form bone; ossification
What is osteoclasts?
The cells that destroy bone; resorption. Bone distraction.
What is bone remodeling?
Normal bone growth is a balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
What is osteophytes?
Small bony Spurs.
What is bursae?
Small fluid-filled sacs located near the joints.
What is arthritis?
Inflammation of a joint.
What does lysis and lytic mean?
To dissolve (destroy).
What are the five bone functions?
Aids in movement
Production of blood *
What is transnational vertebra?
Has characteristics of two different vertebrae.
What is cervical rib?
May compress brachial nerve plexus or subclavian artery.
What is spina bifida?
The spine fails to unite posteriorly (lamina)
What is spina bifida occulta?
Indicated by slight dumpling of the skin or a tuft of hair at the level of defect.
What is a meningocele?
Hermitaion of the meninges.
What is myelomeningocele?
Herniation of the meninges and spinal cord.
What is osteopetrosis?
Too little of the bone is being reabsorbed by the osteoclasts
Bones are weak and stress fractures occur often
Radiographic appearance - radiopague
Must increase technique.
What is the skeletal system?
None and cartilage.
Describe osteogenesis. (born with this)
Brittle bones disease.
Decrease in bone mass
Usually wheel chair bound because their bones cannot support their body weight
What is achondroplasia?
Most common form of dwarfism.
What is congenital hip dysplasia?
Acetabulum not growing correctly; too shallow.
What is dysplasia?
Abnormal growth or development.
What is the radiographic appearance of congenital hip dysplasia?
Ap - usually appears normal
Bilateral Cleaves (frog-leg) - hip is dislocated superiorly.
What is the treatment of congenital hip dysplasia?
Immobilization of the femoral head (a harness of pelvic cast is used)
What is the 2 most common forms of arthritis?
What is Rheumatoid arthritis?
What is a autoimmune disease?
The body mistakenly attacks healthy tissue.
Describe rheumatoid arthritis.
Most common in middle aged women
Begins in joint of feet/hands then progresses.
Can be continuously progressive or have periods of remission
What are the radiographic appearances for rheumatoid arthritis?
Early appearances - periarticular radiolucency.
End stage- crippling deformities.
What is osteoarthritis?
Degenerative joint diseases (DJD)
Loss of joint cartilage
Caused by wear and tear in older patients.
Predominantly affects the weight bearing joint (spine, knees, hips)
What are the radiographic appearances for osteoarthritis?
Narrowing of the joint space and an irregular pattern of osteophytes.
What are osteophytes?
Small bony Spurs?
What is ankylosing spondylitis?
Fusion of the spine; bamboo spine.
What is psoriatic arthritis?
Arthritis that develops in patients with psoriasis?
What is infectious arthritis?
Arthritis caused by infection. (Bacteria or virus)
What is tuberculous arthritis?
Arthritis caused by TB bacteria.
What is gout?
Acute form of arthritis that usually attacks the big toe.
What is gout caused by?
Increased levels of Utica acid in the blood.
Kidneys not functioning properly
What is bursae?
Small fluid filled sacs located near the joints that reduce friction caused by movement.
*usually not seen in an x ray.
What is a rotator cuff?
Refers to the muscles and tendons that surround the glenohumeral joint.
What is a rotator cuff tear?
Causes an abnormal communication between the shoulders joint and the bursa.
What is an arthrogram?
Contrast injected into a join space to see if contrast escapes shoulder joint.
MRI sometimes done after this.
What is osteomyelitis?
Acute inflammation of the bone and bone marrow.
Caused by bacteria
Bacteria can reach bone by Hematogenous spread.
What is the radiographic appearance of osteomyelitis.
Not detectable by plain radiographs until 10 after onset of symptoms
Nuc med can detect the disease within hours of onset.
What is osteoporosis?
Decrease in bone mass.
Usually caused by accelerated resorption of bone. (Osteoclasts)
Prolonged steroid use
Immobilization (in a cast)
What is the radiographic appearance of osteoporosis?
Picture frame pattern - sign of osteoporosis of the spine.
Cortex of vertebral bodies appear as a dense and prominent thin line.
Compression fractures of the spine common.
What are treatments for Osteoporosis?
Weight bearing exercises
Hormonal replacement therapy
Dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D
Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty prevent and treat vertebral collapse.
What is osteomalacia?
Softening of the bone due to vitamin D deficiency.
What is rickets?
Osteomalacia in children.
What is Paget's disease?
A chronic bone disease believed to be caused by a "slow virus"
What is a slow virus?
A virus that takes a slow progressive course of action.
What is Fibrous dysplasia?
Fibrous tissue rapidly grows within the medullary cavity.
Usually begins during childhood.
What is dysplasia?
Abnormal growth and development
Excessive bone repair and destruction.
What is ischemia?
A decreased supply of blood to an organ
What is the radiographic appearance of necrosis?
Late stage seen as radiopague.
What is a simple bone cyst?
Fluid filled, seen as radiolucent on a radiograph.
What is an Incomplete fracture?
Portion of the cortex intact.
What is a closed fracture?
Overlaying skin intact.
What is an open fracture (compound fracture)
Overlaying skin is disrupted (bone is sticking out of skin)
What is a transverse fracture?
Runs at a right angle to the long axis of the bone.
What is an oblique fracture?
Runs at a course of approximately 45 degrees to the long axis of the bone.
What is a spiral fracture?
Encircles the shaft.
What is an avulsion fracture?
Small fragments torn from bony prominences.
What is comminuted fracture?
Composed of more than two fragments.
What is a compression fracture?
Compaction of bone that results in decreased height (vertebrae).
What is a depressed fracture?
Occurs in the skull or tibial plateau.
What is a pathologic fracture?
Fracture not caused by force but rather some other pathologic process (tumor, infection, or disease)
What is a greenstick fracture?
Incomplete fracture of children.
What is a torus (buckle) fracture?
The cortex in intact with buckling.
What is a bowing fracture?
Bowing of the bone due to force but not forceful enough to produce fracture.
What is a non-displaced fracture?
No angulation or separation of the bone fragments.
What is a displaced fracture?
Angulation and separation of the bone fragments.
What is a dislocation?
Displacement of a bone from its normal articulation.
What is a subluxation?
Displacement of a vertebrae.
What must be be done for fractures in radiographs.
Must have 2 projections at least 90 degrees to each other.
What is a closed reduction?
The fracture is manipulated without surgical incision.
What is an external fixation?
Splint or cast.
What should you do with technique with fiberglass and plaster casts?
What is an open reduction?
The fracture is repaired surgically.
What does ORIF stand for?
Open reduction internal fixation.
What is internal fixation?
Metal plates, screws, wires, rods, nails.
What is malunion?
Healing of fracture fragments in faulty position.
What is delayed union?
Any fracture that takes longer to heal than average?
What is nonunion?
Healing process has stopped and the fragments remain ununited.
What is a colles fracture?
Transverse fracture through the distal radius with dorsal angulation.
What is a scaphoid (navicular) fracture?
Initial radiograph may appear normal but repeat radiograph obtained weeks later will reveal fracture.
What is a boxers fracture?
Fracture of the 5th metacarpal.
How can you detect a fracture of the elbow.
Fat pad sign
Demonstrated on lateral pictures of elbow.
What is a Potts fracture?
Bimalleolar fracture (medial and lateral malleolus.
What is a trimalleolar fracture?
Fracture of medial/lateral malleoli and distal posterior aspect of tibia.
What is a jones fracture?
Fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal. (Can see lateral better on lateral ankle)
How can you tell a dislocated shoulder?
1 Anterior dislocation the humeral head will be beneath coracoid process
2 Posterior dislocation the humeral head will be beneath acromion process.
(Anterior most common)
Explain dislocation of the hip.
Posterior dislocation most common.
What is a Jefferson fracture?
A comminuted fracture of the ring of the atlas.
What is hangmans fracture?
Fracture of c2 with anterior subluxation of c2 over c3.
What is a clay shovelers fracture?
Avulsion fracture if a spinous process in the lower cervical or upper thoracic spine.
What is a compression fracture.
Common in the thoracolumbar spine.
What are intervertebral disk?
Act as shock absorbers between the vertebrae.
What is sciatica?
Pain that radiates down the back of the thigh and lower leg.
What causes sciatica?
A herniated disk.
What is myelography?
Contrast injected into the spinal canal.
What is Degenerative disk disease?
Intervertebral disk space narrowing.
What is spondylitis?
Inflammation of the spine.
What is spondylosis?
Arthritis of the zygapophyseal joints.
What is spongylolysis?
A stress fracture of the pars interarticularis.
(Radiographically seen as a collar on the dog or dogs neck is broke)
What is spongylolisthesis?
Forward displacement of one vertebrae over a lower one.
(Due to spondylolysis)
What is menisci?
Cartilage of the knee.
What is metabolic disease?
A disease that occurs because a body process malfunctions.
What is bone metastases?
Cancer that had spread to the bone.