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Flashcards in Urinary Test Deck (79):
1

urinary system structures

2 kidneys
2 ureters
one bladder
one urethra

2

another name for urinary system

excretory system

3

2 functions of the kidneys

filters blood
regulates blood pressure

4

position of the kidneys

retroperitoneal
upper pole more posterior than lower pole
right kidney slightly lower than left

5

renal capsule

outer covering

6

renal cortex

outer tissue

7

renal medulla

inner tissue
arranged in pyramids

8

extensions of cortex between the pyramids

renal columns

9

an area of an organ where things enter and exit

hilum

10

basic structural and functional unit of a kidney

nephron

11

Another name for glomerular capsule

bowman's capsule

12

cluster of capillaries
located within the glomerular capsule
the actual filter of the kidneys

glomerulus

13

blood ARRIVES via this arteriole

afferent arteriole

14

blood EXITS via this arteriole

efferent arteriole

15

Another name for nephron loop

loop of henle

16

parts of the renal tubule

proximal convoluted tubule
nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule
collecting duct

17

opening between the collecting ducts and minor calyces

renal papilla

18

cup shaped tubes where the collecting ducts empty into

minor calyces

19

minor calyces unite to form these

major calyces

20

major calyces unite to form this

renal pelvis

21

tubes that convey urine from kidneys to the bladder

ureters

22

stores urine

bladder

23

triangular area between the three orifices (r & l ureters and urethra)

trigone

24

blood in the urine

hematuria

25

a smaller than normal amount of urine production

oliguria

26

painful urination

dysuria

27

presence of excessive amounts of urea and nitrogen in the blood (hence the BUN blood test)

uremia

28

surgical removal of a kidney

nephrectomy

29

absence of an organ

agenesis

30

abnormal development accounts for small size

hypoplasia

31

diminished size as a result of wasting away

atrophy

32

an increase in size because one kidney must compensate for the absence or lack of function of the other

compensatory hypertrophy

33

rotated kidney

malrotation

34

abnormally positioned kidneys

ectopic kidney

35

lower poles are joined

horseshoe kidney

36

kidney with two ureters

duplication

37

telescoping of the distal ureter into the bladder

ureterocele

38

autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney

glomerulonephritis

39

inflammation of the kidney due to bacteria

pyelonephritis

40

calyceal clubbing

radiographic appearance of chronic pyelonephritis

41

spread by way of the blood system (circulatory system) (cardiovascular system)

hematogenous spread

42

inflammation of the urinary bladder due to bacteria
bladder infection (UTI urinary tract infection)
most common nosocomial infection

cystitis

43

calculi

kidney stones

44

increased level of calcium in the blood

hypercalcemia

45

overactivity of the parathyroid gland

hyperparathyroidism

46

a stone that completely fills the renal pelvis

staghorn calculus

47

medication to dissolve a kidney stone

chmolysis

48

accessed via needle puncture of the skin

percutaneous

49

shock waves to break up a kidney stone

lithotripsy

50

scope placed through the urethra and bladder to access the ureters to grasp a kidney stone

cystoscopic retrieval of a kidney stone

51

a calculus in a vein
common in the pelvic brim area

phlebolith

52

narrowing of the urethra

urethral stricture

53

dilated kidney

hydronephrosis

54

the functional parts of the kidney; the nephrons

kidney parenchyma

55

smooth-walled, fluid filled

simple cyst

56

inherited disease characterized by the formation of many cysts withing the kidney
mottled or swiss cheese radiographic appearance

polycystic kidney disease

57

nephroblastoma
most common childhood kidney neoplasm

wilms tumor

58

a blood clot inside the renal vein

renal vein thrombosis

59

the failure of the kidneys to filter blood

renal failure

60

sudden onset of kidney failure

acute renal failure

61

renal failure that persists over a long period of time

chronic renal failure

62

glomerular filtration rate
normal is 100 ml/min

GFR

63

decrease in blood flow to the kidneys (various causes)
various diseases of the kidneys
toxic substances to the kidneys

causes of acute renal failure

64

cause of chronic renal failure

diabetes & high blood pressure

65

if kidney damage is severe enough, what will a patient have to begin?

dialysis

66

the filtering of blood by a machine instead of the kidney

dialysis

67

3 types of vascular access for hemodialysis

venous catheter
AV graft
AV fistula

68

describe the vascular access for hemodialysis

the site on your body where blood will be removed and returned during dialysis

69

surgically created connection of an artery and a vein
best vascular access option for hemodialysis

AV fistula

70

surgically connecting an artery and vein via an artificial tube

AV graft

71

temporary vascular access for hemodialysis

venous catheter for hemodialysis

72

Absence of a kidney

renal agenesis

73

Where would a kidney be for an ectopic kidney?

pelvis and chest.

74

Painful urination

dysuria

75

Pus in the urine

pyuria

76

A severe form of pyelonephritis exists is characterized by what?

gas-forming bacteria

77

80% of renal stones are what?

radiopague

78

What test best shows kidney stones?

CT scan

79

An IVP for a kidney stone may be have to be prolonged for 48 hours why after contrast is administered why?

to determine the precise site of obstruction