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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (140):
1

A neurologic assessment tool that determines level of consciousness.

Glasgow coma scale.

2

Level of consciousness?

LOC.

3

A life-threatening medical condition where the body is not getting enough blood flow.

Shock.

4

Low blood pressure, respirations rapid and shallow, tachycardia, cold clammy skin, anxiety.

Symptoms of shock.

5

Stop the procedure, place the patient supine, elevate the legs, call for help.

Radiographers response to shock.

6

Shock caused by the heart by pumping enough blood to the rest of the body.

Cariogenic shock.

7

The heart muscle damaged by a myocardial infarction.

The most common cause of Cardiogenic shock.

8

Myocardial infarction.

MI

9

Heart attack.

MI

10

Heart muscle tissue death due to decreased blood supply.

MI

11

Shock caused by a spinal cord injury that caused vasodilation.

Septic shock.

12

Shock caused by a severe allergic reaction that causes vasodilation.

Anaphylactic shock.

13

Severe allergy.

Anaphylaxis.

14

Swelling of the upper airway.

Symptom of anaphylaxis.

15

Throat; upper airway.

Pharynx.

16

Epinephrine & Benadryl.

Medications given for an anaphylactic shock emergency.

17

Prednisone & Benadryl.

Premedication given to prevent an anaphylactic emergency.

18

An occlusion of a pulmonary artery by a thrombus.

Pulmonary embolus.

19

Artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the lungs.

Pulmonary artery.

20

Diphenhydramine.

Generic name of Benadryl.

21

Chronic condition of having too much glucose the blood.

Diabetes.

22

Too much glucose in the blood.

Hyperglycemia.

23

Too low of glucose in the blood.

Hypoglycemia.

24

Pancreas not producing enough insulin.

Cause if diabetes.

25

A hormone that makes the organs take up glucose from the blood.

Insulin.

26

Cerebral vascular accident; stroke.

CVA.

27

Interruption of the blood supply to the brain.

CVA.

28

Blockage of a cerebral artery.

Ischemic stroke.

29

Rupture of a cerebral artery.

Hemorrhagic stroke.

30

Weakness, confusion, extreme thirst, irritability, blurred vision.

Symptoms of a diabetic emergency.

31

Sudden onset of severe headache, sudden onset of one sided weakness, slurred speech, confusion.

Symptoms of a stroke.

32

A patient's heart stops beating.

Cardiac arrest.

33

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

CPR.

34

Compressions, airway, breathing.

Order of CPR.

35

Patient stops breathing.

Respiratory arrest.

36

The ventricles of the heart are quivering, instead of making strong contractions.

Ventricular fibrillation.

37

Use a defibrillator.

What to do if a patient goes into ventricular fibrillation. (V-fib)

38

Automatic external defibrillator.

AED.

39

Abdominal thrust.

What to do if a patient has an airway obstruction.

40

Fainting; a temporary loss of consciousness.

Syncope.

41

Lower patient to the ground; elevate the legs.

What to do if a patient has an episode of syncope.

42

Acknowledge the complaint, help alleviate pain anyway you can, call for help if needed, report the complaint of pain to the patients nurse.

What to do if a patient is having pain.

43

Stay calm, do not be confrontational, reassure, ask for help.

How to handle an an agitated or confused patient.

44

Difficulty breathing.

Respiratory distress.

45

Increase in breathing rate, blushing color around the mouth of fingernails, grunting/nose flaring/sweating/wheezing, chest retractions.

Symptoms of respiratory distress.

46

Put patient in sitting position, semi-fowler position may help, get the oxygen ready, call for help.

What to do if a patient is experiencing labored breathing.

47

Study of drugs.

Pharmacology.

48

Drug/medication; biologic; alternative substances.

3 categories of substance used for therapeutic purposes.

49

A chemical agent capable of producing a biologic response in the body.

Drug/medication.

50

A substance naturally produced by a human or animal intended to be used therapeutically.

Biologic.

51

A plant based substance intended to be used therapeutically.

Alternative substance.

52

Therapeutic.

A desirable response of a drug on the body.

53

Adverse.

An undesirable response of a drug on the body.

54

A cart that contains the medications and equipment that are needed when a patient's condition suddenly becomes critical.

Crash cart.

55

what the body does to the drug

pharmacokinetics

56

absorbs it, distributes it, metabolizes it, excretes it

the steps of pharmacokinetics

57

partial metabolism of a drug by the liver before it reaches the systemic circulation

first-pass effect

58

what the drug does to the body

pharmacodynamics

59

name; mode of action; prescription/nonprescription; agonist/antagonist

ways a drug can be classified

60

part of a cell that the drug binds to

receptor

61

a drug that produces an effect when it binds to a cell

agonist

62

a drug that prevents an action from happening when it binds to a cell; blocking drugs

antagonist

63

intended to effect a only a certain location

local medications

64

numbs the area

local anesthetic

65

xylocaine

lidocaine

66

has an effect throughout the body

systemic medications

67

oral, rectal, sublingual, parenteral

4 routes of drug administration

68

the route of drug administration that does not involve the GI tract; an injection of some kind

parenteral

69

within a vein

intravenous

70

within a muscle

intramuscular

71

injection into the spine

intrathecal

72

into the dermis (skin)

intradermal

73

just below the dermis (skin)

subcutaneous

74

the introduction of a fluid through a vein

intravenous therapy

75

vena cava

central

76

peripherally inserted central catheter

PICC line

77

extremities

peripheral

78

inside the cell

intracellular

79

outside the cell

extracellular

80

inside a blood vessel

intravascular

81

drops

gtt

82

pain relievers

analgesics

83

strong pain relievers

narcotics

84

treats arrhythmias of the heart

antiarrhythmics

85

treat infections caused by bacteria

antibiotics

86

hinders the coagulation (clotting) of the blood

anticoagulants

87

prevents vomiting

antiemetics

88

lowers blood pressure

antihypertensives

89

destroys platelets

antiplatelets

90

reduces anxiety

anxiolytic

91

calms a patient to permit sleep

sedative

92

increases the excretion of urine

diuretics

93

breaks up a thrombus (blood clot)

thrombolytic

94

narrows the blood vessels

vasoconstrictors

95

widens blood vessels

vasodilators

96

negative contrast agent
low atomic number
attenuates less radiation
radiolucent

air

97

iodine
barium

2 positive contrast agents

98

high atomic number
attenuates more radiation
radiopaque

positive contrast agents

99

water

solvent

100

water with things dissolved in it

solution

101

the "things" dissolved in a solution

solute

102

blood cells
plasma

2 components of blood

103

sodium and chloride

the solutes in plasma

104

equal osmotic pressure; equal amount of solute on the inside and outside of the cells

isotonic

105

fluids that have a greater solute concentration than blood

hyperosmolar

106

fluids that have a smaller concentration than blood

hypoosmolar

107

the passage of water through a semipermeable membrane into a place of higher solute concentration

osmosis

108

hyperosmolarity

most common cause of adverse reactions to contrast media

109

breaks apart into 2 ions when enters the blood stream
contains iodine

ionic contrast

110

does not break apart into ions when enters the blood stream
contains iodine

nonionic contrast

111

viscosity increases

what happens to viscosity as the amount of iodine increases

112

thickness and stickiness

viscosity

113

injection pressures increase

what happens to injection pressures as viscosity increases?

114

the ability of something to mix with blood

miscibility

115

the urinary system

how is iodinated contrast eliminated from the body

116

10-30 mg/dl

normal BUN

117

.5-1.5 mg/dl

normal creatinine

118

100 ml/min

normal GFR

119

hyperosmolarity

when a patient has a reaction of decreased blood pressure after having contrast, what is the usual cause?

120

electrocardiogram
12 leads
a 6 second recording of the electrical activity of the heart

ECG/EKG

121

electrodes

what is the electricity detected by during an EKG

122

a patch placed on the patient's skin to detect the heart's electrical activity

electrode

123

10 leads are attached (10 wires)

how many electrodes and leads are attached during a 12-lead EKG

124

2 meanings:
the wire
the view of the heart recorded between two electrodes

an EKG lead

125

pacemaker of the heart
generates the electrical signal of the heart
located in right atrium

SA node

126

the heart is beating normally and the impulse is originating in the SA node

normal sinus rhythm

127

SA node; AV node; Bundle of His; R & L bundle branches; purkinje fibers

path of the electrical signal in the heart

128

atrial contraction

p wave

129

ventricular contraction

QRS

130

ventricular relaxation

T wave

131

anything other than a normal ECG

arrhythmia

132

slow sinus rhythm
less than 60 beats/min

sinus bradycardia

133

fast sinus rhythm
more than 100 beats/min

sinus tachycardia

134

v-fib
ventricles are quivering
irregular wavy line
use the defibrillator

ventricular fibrillation

135

no p wave
atria are quivering
common cause of blood clots

atrial fibrillation

136

no heart beat
flat line

asystole

137

st elevated myocardial infarction

STEMI

138

3 or 5 leads
transmits the electrical activity to a nurses station

telemetry

139

patient wears it
electrical activity is recorded when symptoms occur

event recorder

140

patient wears it
electrical activity is recorded continuously for days

holter monitor