Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

Radiology > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (100):
1

Asthenic?

Heart vertical; lung long; diaphragm low.

2

Thorax?

Chest.

3

Bones of the thorax?

Ribs
Sternum
Vertebrae.

**Not clavicle**

4

Viscera?

Organs.

5

Function of respiratory?

Oxygenate the blood.

6

Pharynx?

Throat.
Cavity behind the nose and mouth.

7

Larynx?

Voice box.

8

Laryngeal prominence?

Thyroid cartilage.

9

Epiglottis?

Flap of cartilage that covers the larynx when swallowing.

10

Bronchi?

Airways of the lungs.

11

Bronchioles?

Smaller bronchi.

12

Alveoli?

Air-filled sacs of the lungs; functional tissue of the lungs; where gas exchange takes place.

13

Parenchyma/interstitium?

Functional tissue of an organ.

14

Pleura?

Double membrane sac that sounds the lungs.

15

Parietal pleura?

Outer membrane
Lines the thoracic wall.

16

Visceral pleura?

Inner membrane
Covers the lungs.

17

Pleural cavity?

The space between the parietal and visceral pleura.

18

Mediastinum?

The space between the lungs.

19

Hilum?

At area of an organ where things enter and exit.

20

Cystic fibrosis?

Excessive secretion of mucus caused by a defective gene
The mucus obstructs the bronchi.

21

How is cystic fibrosis diagnosed?

Sweat test.

22

Prophylactic?

To prevent.

23

Bronchodilators?

Drugs that make the airways bigger.

24

Hyaline membrane disease?

Lack of surfactant in premature infants.

25

Surfactant?

A substance in the alveoli that allow them to stay inflated.

26

Radiographic appearance of underaerated lung?

Radiopague.

27

Croup, and radiographic appearance?

Inflammation of the upper trachea caused by a bacteria or virus
Radiographic appearance is narrowed trachea; STEEPLE SIGN
"Barking cough"

28

Epiglottitis, and radiographic appearance?

Inflammation of the epiglottis caused by a bacteria or virus
Radiographic appearance is rounded thickening of epiglottis. THUMB SIGN.

29

Pneumonia and radiographic appearance?

Inflammation of the lungs caused by a bacteria or virus
Radiographic appearance is radiopague patches.

30

Aspiration pneumonia?

Inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of gastric contents.

31

Respiratory syncytial virus? (RSV)

Common viral infection of the lungs in infants.

32

Tuberculosis? (TB)

Infection of the lungs caused by the TB bacteria.

33

Pulmonary mycosis?

Infection of the lungs caused by fungus.

34

Histoplasmosis?

Common fungal infection of the lungs in the Midwest area.

35

Lung abscess?

Localized collection of pus in the lung.

36

Chronic bronchitis?

Chronic inflammation of the bronchi caused by smoking.
*leads to COPD.

37

COPD? (Emphysema) and radiographic appearance.

Aveloli rupture. Air trapped in the lungs.
radiolucent.
Flattening of the domes of the diaphragm, increase in AP diameter.
BARREL CHEST.
Requires less technique.

38

Asthma?

Inflammation and narrowing of the airways caused by allergens.

39

Pneumoconiosis?

Lung disease caused by chronic inhalation of dust.

40

Neoplasm?

New growth.

41

Nodule/mass/neoplasm?

Tumor.

42

Benign?

Not cancerous.

43

Differentiated.

Smooth, sharp margins.

44

Undifferentiated/non-differentiated?

Ill-defined, irregular, funny borders.

45

Metastases?

Cancer that spreads to a location that originated somewhere else.

46

Pulmonary embolism?

Blockage of a pulmonary artery by a blood clot.

47

Ischemia?

Decreased blood supply to an organ.

48

Infarction?

Tissue death due to decreased blood supply.

49

Necrosis?

An area of dead tissue.

50

Fistula?

Abnormal hole.

51

Atelectasis and radiographic appearance?

Partial or complete collapsed lung.
Radiographic appearance is radiopague.

52

Iatrogenic?

Caused by a physician.

53

Pneumothorax and radiographic appearance?

Air in the thoracic cavity
Radiolucent.

54

Pleural effusion and radiographic appearance?

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Blunting of costophrenic angle.
Radiopague.

55

Empyema and radiographic appearance?

Pus in the pleural space.
Radiopague.

56

Pleurisy?

Inflammation of the pleura.

57

Congestive heart failure? (CHF) and radiographic appearance?

Failure of the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Therefor blood backs up into the heart.

Cardiomegaly.

58

Pulmonary edema?

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, caused by CHF.
Blood continues to back up into the alveoli.

59

Hemoptysis?

Coughing up blood.

60

Hypoxia?

Lack of oxygen.

61

Hyperlucency?

Overall black appearance of radiograph.

62

Valsalva effect?

Forced expiration against closed epiglottis
Makes heart appear smaller.

63

Edema?

Makes anatomy more radiopague
Requires more radiation to penetrate edema.

64

Empyema?

Makes anatomy more radiopague
Requires more radiation to penetrate edema.

65

What show up radiopague?

Underaerated lungs
Pneumonia
Ateletasis
Edema
Empyema
Pleural effusion.

66

Hypersthenic?

Heart transverse; lungs short; diaphragm high.

67

What show up radiolucent?

COPD
Pneumothorax
Emphysema.

68

Sthenic?

Moderate build.

69

Hyposthenic?

Moderate build.

70

Glottis?

Opening of the larynx.

71

Bronchial tree?

Extensive branching into smaller and smaller tubes.

72

What does the mediastinum consist of?

Great vessels
Heart
Esophagus
Trachea
Thymus.

73

Chest physiotherapy?

Tapping against the chest.

74

What is surfactant also known as?

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

75

Describe cystic fibrosis.

Child fails to gain weight, bulky foul smelling stools.

Caused by mucus plugs in pancreas blocks pancreatic enzymes from entering duodenum.

76

Treatment for hyaline membrane disease?

Infant inhales artificial surfactant.

77

Treatment for cystic fibrosis?

Prophylactic
Chest physiotherapy
Bronchodilators.

78

Treatment for croup?

Cool must steam from hot showers; steroids.

79

What has a high rate of nosocomial infections?

RSV.

79

Describe TB

Spreads by droplets in the air from coughing.
Has a protective waxy coat that permit it to live outside the body for a long time.

80

Explain primary and secondary TB.

Primary - the initial infection
Secondary - reactivated bacteria that were once dormant

81

Coccidiodomycosis?

Most common in soil in western states.

82

What is also called occupational lung disease.

Pneumoconiosis.

83

Silicosis?

Inhalation of sand dust.

84

Asbestosis?

Inhalation of asbestos.

85

Anthracosis?

Inhalation of coal dust.
"Black lung disease"

86

How is a pulmonary embolism diagnosed?

With VQ lung scan
CT

87

Pulmonary ateriovenous fistula?

Abnormal vascular communication from a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein.

88

What is the number one thing that collects in the bronchi after abdominal surgery?

Mucus.

89

What is compression?

Pressure on the lung causes the lung to collapse.

90

What is incentive spirometry?

Re-expand the lung.

91

Why does a pneumothorax result in?

A partial or complete collapse of the lung.

92

When x raying. What must you always have upright and always do inspiration expiration?

Pneumothorax.

93

Treatment form pneumothorax?

May require a chest tube
May reabsorb on own.

94

When x raying. What just you always do upright or decubed?

Pleural effusion.

95

What is cardiomegaly?

Enlarged heart.

96

Explain PE.

Failure of the heart to pump blood to rest of body.
Fluid is not getting out of the heart so it backs up into the lungs.

97

What should you do to demonstrate fluid levels?

Patient should be in an erect position for a minimum of 5 minutes.

98

If the patient is recumbent what must be used?

Horizontal beam.

99

Why is it best to a chest x ray in the erect position?

Puts diaphragm in lowest position
Potential to see air levels or fluid levels.