Flashcards in 8 The Third Force: the Humanists - Maslow and Rogers Deck (48):
What determines the health of an individual in the Humanistic Psychology model of determinism?
The individual's health is determined by their choices. The individual is an active determiner in their own fate rather than a passive recipient determined by instincts or the environment
How does personality develop, according to Humanists?
Humanists argue that an individual's personality develops by pulling towards goals, rather than being pushed by instinctual drives
Birth/death dates of Abraham Maslow, por favor?
With whom did Maslow study?
With Thorndike and did PhD with Harlow (of monkey fame), who said "we lost one of the best scholars of behaviourism"
Did Maslow become president of the APA?
You betcha hierarchy of needs he did!
When did Maslow first put forward the idea of a hierarchy of needs?
In his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review
What's the difference between deficit and growth needs, soglasno Maslovu?
Deficit needs are for things such as safety, food etc. If you have a deficit you are motivated to achieving that need – deficit needs cease to be motivating once they have been satisfied.
Growth needs include things such as self actualisation (need for fulfilment of potential) and need for truth/justice
What are the six levels of the hierarchy of needs - from top to bottom?
6. B-values – need for truth
5. Self-actualisation – need for fulfilment of potential
4. Esteem – for oneself and for others
3. Love/belongingness – need for family/mateship
2. Safety – need for shelter/peace
1. Physiological – need for food and water
How many people finish the journey to self-actualisation?
Must a need be satisfied in order for a higher-level need to emerge?
Yes, but not entirely. The more a lower-level need is satisfied, the more a higher-level need will emerge
Can the hierarchy ever be reversed?
Sure, take the struggling artist, for instance, whose need to fulfill his potential takes precedence over need for food
What happens if the needs are not fulfilled?
Lack of satisfaction of any level of needs leads to pathology; satisfaction of them leads to psychological health
How does Maslow define self-actualisation?
"The full use and exploitation of talents, capacities potentialities, etc”
What happens if psychological growth is stunted at level of esteem?
You don't develop self-actualisation or B-needs
How many self-actualised people did Maslow find in his study of 3,000 college students?
What are some examples of self-actualised people?
Lincoln, Gandhi, Einstein, Jefferson
What are some of the 15 characteristics of self-actualised people?
1. More efficient perception of reality
3. Democratic character structure
4. Acceptance of self, others and nature
5. Continued freshness of appreciation
6. Discrimination between means and ends
7. Spontaneity, simplicity and naturalness
8. The peak experience* - feeling of transcendence that occurs at unexpected and quite ordinary moments
9. Philosophical sense of humour
10. Problem-centered (concerned with problems outside themselves)
11. Social interest in the community
13. Need for privacy
14. Profound interpersonal relations
15. Resistance to enculturation
What is measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) and its later revision the Short Index POI (SIPOI)?
How was the discriminant validity of the Personal Orientation Inventory established?
Fogarty (1994) used the POI to successfully show that students who were perceived to be more self-actualised reported significantly higher scores than students perceived to be less self-actualised - thus providing discriminant validity for the POI (and indirect support for Maslow’s theory.)
What three important emendations to Maslow's hierarchy were proposed by Rowan (1998)?
1. A clearer distinction between the need for esteem from others and the need for "self-esteem";
2. Include the "need for competence" between the safety needs and the need for love/belongingness; and
3. Eradicate the popular, yet inaccurate, textbook presentation of the needs hierarchy in the form of a triangle or pyramid.
Are people's basic needs always satisfied (in polite society)?
Nah, they're always partially satisfied and partially unsatisfied
What does it mean when someone has 75% of their physical needs met?
Who knows? The hierarchy of needs is kinda hard to measure
What are some problems with Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
The categories are arbitrary
There's no obvious way of measuring it
It's not empirically refutable
Birth/death dates of Carl Rogers?
What does Roger's have to say about the individual's experience?
"The individual's experience is his or her reality"
What is it the therapist's job to assess, according to Rogers?
The individual's private world, their version of reality. So what the client says is more important than what the therapist thinks of them.
What is Rogers' seminal publication?
What is Rogers' basic theory called?
Person-Centred Theory (but Client-Centred Therapy)
How does Rogers' justify his non-interventionist approach to therapy?
With the idea that the individual has within himself the resources for healing himself, and these resources can be tapped only in an accepting psychological environment
What are the six conditions of personality change in Client-Centred Therapy?
1. Two persons, the client and the therapist, are in psychological contact.
2. The client is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious.
3. The therapist is congruent and genuine.
4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard (warm acceptance) for the client.
5. The therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference and endeavours to communicate this experience to the client (e.g. circular questioning).
6. The communication to the client of the therapist's empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard must be minimally achieved.
What is incongruence?
Conflict between ideal (or believed-to-be-true) self and actual self
What is the technique of circular questioning and what does it do?
Client: "I'm not feeling well"
Therapist: "So you're not feeling well?"
It communicates empathic understanding.
Rogers: Why shouldn't the therapist make suggestions as to what the client should do?
Because the client has within them the answer to all their questions.
How would Rogers elicit information from clients?
He wouldn't really. He believed that whatever information would be needed in treatment would emerge as the client decided to communicate it.
What are Rogers' three necessary and sufficient qualities of being a successful therapist?
1. Congruence – genuineness and honesty with the client.
2. Empathy – the ability to feel what the client feels.
3. Unconditional positive regard – acceptance and respect towards the client.
What is the fully-functioning person in Person-Centred Theory?
Someone who is:
1. More open to experience,
2. Lives their life in an existential (transcends the boundaries of life) way, and
3. Has increased trust in themselves.
What is the formative tendency in Person-Centred Theory?
The tendency for all matter to evolve from simpler (primitive unconsciousness) to more complex forms (highly organised awareness)
What is the actualising tendency in Person-Centred Theory?
The tendency within all human beings to move toward fulfillment of potentials. Individuals have within themselves the power to become increasingly self-directed.
What are the three elements of the self, according to Rogers?
Actual self – what you're really like
Self-image (self-concept) – How we think we are ourselves. At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-concept has an affect on how a person thinks feels and behaves in the world.
Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.
What is congruence and when does it occur?
When the self-concept and ideal self are identical
An association between high self-discrepancy and WHICH negative qualities has been reported in research? (two examples)
More alcohol consumption among undergrads with higher self-discrepancy (Wolfe and Maisto, 2000)
Depressed individuals show higher levels of self-discrepancy (Choi and Lee, 1998)
According to both Rogers and Maslow, when does maladjustment occur?
When the spontaneous and natural expression of the inner-self is blocked
In what sense does Maslow's theory of SA go one step beyond Rogers'?
In Maslow's theory, people can go beyond self-actualisation to pursue B-values
What is Rogers' definition of the self-concept?
"The organized consistent conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of 'I' or 'me' and the perceptions of the relationships of the 'I' or 'me' to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions. It is a gestalt which is available to awareness though not necessarily in awareness. It is a fluid and changing gestalt, a process, but at any given moment it is a specific entity."
Why does it matter for the individual whether positive regard in an environment is conditional or unconditional?
Those raised in an environment of unconditional positive regard have the opportunity to fully actualize themselves. Those raised in an environment of conditional positive regard feel worthy only if they match conditions (what Rogers describes as conditions of worth) that have been laid down for them by others.
What is the organismic valuing process (OVP)?
The intuitive mechanism organisms have which tells them what is good and what is bad for them. Organisms through evolution have developed senses, and the capability to interpret sensory information in terms of its value, for that organism. E.g. food that is rotten, and therefore dangerous to eat, will taste bad to a person and they will feel like not eating it.
What two mechanism are deployed when self-concept is threatened?
Distortion and denial. Individuals either distort the perception until it fits their self-concept or ignore the threat to self-concept.