Lecture 9 Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 Language Deck (69)
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1
Q

Language is defined as a ___ system of ___ ___ that has an organized ___ and ___ to convey ___ content.

A

complex, symbolic expression, grammar and syntax, semantic

2
Q

Language encompasses both verbal __ and __ components.

A

expression and comprehension

3
Q

A combination of ___ will yield a morpheme.

A

phonemes

4
Q

Note that some __ can be complete words by themselves.

A

morphemes

5
Q

A combination of morphemes will yield a __.

A

word

6
Q

What is semantics?

A

the meaning connected to words and sentences

7
Q

What is prosody?

A

the vocal intonation that can modify the literal meaning of words and sentences

8
Q

What is the stringing together of sentences to form a meaningful narrative?

A

discourse

9
Q

Language is any system that is used for __ and __ ideas.

A

representing and communicating

10
Q

Speech refers to a particular ___ manner of communicating language.

A

audible

11
Q

Many species of animals use ___ as a form of communication, as do humans.

A

sound

12
Q

What are the differences btwn apes and humans in regard to language?

A

we have lower larynx, longer oral cavity, and ability to move tongue both horizontally and vertically –> so can produce wider range of formant patterns

13
Q

Language is a combination of four entirely separate abilities including ability to…

A

categorize info, label categories, sequence behaviors, mimic

14
Q

Broddman area(s) for Wernicke’s area?

A

22

15
Q

Broddman area(s) for Broca’s area?

A

44 and 45

16
Q

Wernicke’s area is right near ___’s gyrus (a/k/a primary ___ cortex, Broddman areas ___ and ___).

A

Heschl’s, auditory, 41 and 42

17
Q

Together, Heschl’s gyrus, anterior and posterior temporal planes (STP) are sometimes called what?

A

planum temporale

18
Q

Broca’s area plays an integral role in ___ of language; and is located in the ___ ___ lobe.

A

production, inferior frontal

19
Q

Wernicke’s area plays an integral role in __ __ and __; and is located in the ___ part of the __ __ gyrus.

A

phonemic encoding and decoding, posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus

20
Q

What is the arcuate fasciculus?

A

a major fiber bundle that connects Wernicke’s to Broca’s through the angular gyrus

21
Q

Speaking the written word activates primary __ cortex, while speaking the heard word activates primary __ cortex; both activate primary __ cortex.

A

visual, auditory, motor

22
Q

Wernicke’s area is where __ have __.

A

where words have meaning

23
Q

Morphemes are assembled in __’s area.

A

Broca’s

24
Q

Wernicke’s aphasia is an example of __ aphasia.

A

fluent

25
Q

Word meanings get sent from __’s area to __’s area via the __ __.

A

Wernicke’s to Broca’s via arcuate fasciculus

26
Q

What does the angular gyrus do?

A

convert visual info into auditory info (in reading)

27
Q

Language mapping is done to protect language functions during surgery for __ __ __ or __ __.

A

temporal lobe epilepsy, brain tumors

28
Q

Language mapping is done while patient is awake and interactive because…

A

the brain itself does not have pain receptors

29
Q

In language mapping, how do you know that a brain area is important for visual object naming?

A

when patient cannot name object during stimulation of that area

30
Q

Broca’s or Wernicke’s aphasia?: loss of ability to understand language

A

Wernicke’s

31
Q

Broca’s or Wernicke’s aphasia?: prevents a person from producing speech

A

Broca’s

32
Q

Broca’s or Wernicke’s aphasia?: person CAN understand speech

A

Broca’s

33
Q

Broca’s or Wernicke’s aphasia?: speech is slow and slurred

A

Broca’s

34
Q

Broca’s or Wernicke’s aphasia?: person CAN speak clearly, but the words that are strung together do not make sense (“word salad”)

A

Wernicke’s

35
Q

Broca’s or Wernicke’s aphasia?: person is completely cognizant of deficit

A

Broca’s

36
Q

The language area of males is __ than the language area of females.

A

larger

37
Q

Ojemann et al. reveal that the size of the language area is perhaps __ related to language ability.

A

inversely

38
Q

In multilingual speakers, the weaker language is often distributed over __ areas compared to the stronger primary language.

A

larger

39
Q

The right hemisphere maintains __ auditory comprehension of language and __ reading ability.

A

good, some

40
Q

The ___ hemisphere is implicated in semantic processing but has no ability in __ processing.

A

right, syntactical

41
Q

What is aphasia?

A

difficulty producing or comprehending language in any modality (in speech, writing, or reading)

42
Q

What is alexia?

A

inability to read

43
Q

What is agraphia?

A

inability to write

44
Q

What is anomia?

A

word-finding deficit

45
Q

What is paraphasia?

A

production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases in an effort to speak

46
Q

What is apraxia of speech?

A

difficulty producing sequences of speech sounds

47
Q

What is aprosidia?

A

loss of tone in voice

48
Q

Working memory and sound articulation impairment are associated w/ ___ aphasias and ___’s area.

A

non-fluent, Broca’s

49
Q

Difficulty holding sentences in memory & word rhyming are associated w/ ___ aphasias and ___’s area

A

fluent, Wernicke’s

50
Q

The arcuate fasciculus is associated w/ ___ ___, a non-fluent aphasic symptom.

A

recurring utterances

51
Q

Impairment in ___ ___ is a ___ aphasic symptom associated w/ the medial temporal lobe.

A

speech comprehension, fluent

52
Q

Apraxia of speech is a ___ aphasic symptom associated w/ the ___; laborious ___ but relatively good ___.

A

non-fluent, insula, articulation, comprehension

53
Q

In ___’s aphasia, what is said usually makes sense but is very ___ or ___ in style.

A

compressed or telegraphic

54
Q

In ___’s aphasia, speech is typically devoid of content but __, __ and __ are preserved.

A

Wernicke’s, rhythm, grammar, articulation

55
Q

What kind of aphasia is this an example of?: “Before I was in the one here, I was over in the other one. My sister had the thing in the other one.”

A

Wernicke’s

56
Q

A lesion in Wernicke’s aphasia can result in a severe loss of understanding, even though __ of __ words and __ maybe fully normal.

A

hearing, nonverbal, music

57
Q

What is a “pure” aphasia? What are three examples?

A

selective impairments in specific areas, e.g., alexia (w/o agraphia), agraphia, word deafness

58
Q

Is Broca’s aphasia a fluent or nonfluent aphasia?

A

nonfluent

59
Q

Area 39 is the ___ ___.

A

angular gyrus (for reading)

60
Q

Fluent aphasias involve fluent ___ (w/o ___ disorders), but difficulties either in auditory verbal ___ and/or ___ (e.g., Wernicke’s).

A

speech, w/o articulatory, comprehension, expression

61
Q

Non-fluent aphasias (e.g., apraxia) involve laborious ___, but relatively good auditory verbal ___ (e.g., Broca’s).

A

articulation, comprehension

62
Q

Conduction aphasia is when a person can’t ___ words.

A

repeat

63
Q

___ of speech is a core deficit of non-fluent ___, and is thought to come from damage not to Broca’s but to the ___ (Dronkers).

A

apraxia, aphasia, insula

64
Q

Damage to superior temporal gyrus results in… (Dronkers).

A

impaired sentence comprehension

65
Q

Damage to arcuate facilus results in… (Dronkers).

A

recurring utterances

66
Q

Damage to Broca’s results in impaired ___ and ___ ___ (Dronkers).

A

articulation, working memory

67
Q

Damage to insula results in… (Dronkers).

A

apraxia of speech (non-fluent aphasias)

68
Q

Damage to superior temporal gyrus may result in…

A

impaired sentence

69
Q

Electrical stimulation of left ___ improves later retrieval of words heard during stimulation (Ojemann).

A

thalamus