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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Language Deck (44)
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1
Q

The smallest meaningful units of a word are called __________.

a. morphemes
b. lexicals
c. vowels
d. phonemes

A

a. morphemes

2
Q

Syntax is more generally referred to as __________.

a. word flow
b. grammar
c. prosody
d. none of the above

A

b. grammar

3
Q

Swadish based his hypothesis about the origins of human language on

a. the relative positioning of the larynx in humans and apes.
b. the fossil record.
c. the rate of change of dialects.
d. X-rays of modern and ancient skulls.

A

c. the rate of change of dialects.

4
Q

The conclusion that the same brain areas are involved in both speech and signing is based primarily on

a. observations that signers are usually right-handed, too.
b. fMRI data on signing and speech.
c. observations that aphasia in signers usually involves the right hemisphere.
d. all of the above.

A

b. fMRI data on signing and speech.

5
Q

Yerkish is __________.

a. a form of sign language
b. an artificial language involving keyboard symbols
c. the language spoken by ancient Yerks in Yerkey
d. a Pidgen language

A

b. an artificial language involving keyboard symbols

6
Q

According to Yip (2006), the ability to __________ is least important for language formation.

a. categorize
b. form sounds
c. sequence behaviors
d. label categories

A

b. form sounds

7
Q

According to Brodmann’s neuroanatomical identification scheme, Broca’s area is referred to as __________, and Wernicke’s area is referred to as __________.

a. areas 44 and 45, area 22
b. the perisylvian region, the inferior frontal cortex
c. the arcuate fasciculus, the perforant pathway
d. IT, TE

A

a. areas 44 and 45, area 22

8
Q

Which neurosurgeon is responsible for mapping the language areas of the human cortex through the use of electrical stimulation given to patients before surgery?

a. Wernicke
b. Damasio
c. Penfield
d. Geschwind

A

c. Penfield

9
Q

The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated that there is a functional connection in the brain between the language areas and which region that becomes active when a person produces speech?

a. the insula
b. the hand region of the motor cortex
c. the supplementary motor area
d. orbitofrontal cortex

A

b. the hand region of the motor cortex

10
Q

An imaging study done by Damasio et al. (1996) demonstrated that

a. both temporal lobes are functionally symmetrical in non-human animals.
b. phylogenetically the temporal lobe was the last part of the brain to develop.
c. temporal lobe seizures actually begin in the basal ganglia.
d. there are separate regions in the temporal lobe for the storage of different categories of information.

A

d. there are separate regions in the temporal lobe for the storage of different categories of information.

11
Q

__________ may refer to a disorder of language apparent in speech, in writing (in this case also called __________), or in reading (also called __________) produced by injury to brain areas specialized for these functions.

a. Dysthymia, dyslexia, Wernicke’s syndrome
b. Aphasia, agraphia, alexia
c. Agnosia, prosopagnosia, global aphasia
d. Akinetopsia, achromatopsia, dyslexia

A

b. Aphasia, agraphia, alexia

12
Q

The language disorder known as “word deafness” falls under which of the headings of aphasic syndromes listed in the text?

a. fluent aphasias
b. pure aphasias
c. dyslexic aphasias
d. afluent aphasias

A

b. pure aphasias

13
Q

Which is NOT a component of Wernicke’s aphasia?

a. the speech defect known as “word salad”
b. a deficit in categorizing sounds
c. impairment in writing
d. speech conduction impairment

A

d. speech conduction impairment

14
Q

According to Dronkers et al., damage to which language structure in the cerebral cortex leads to apraxia of speech (difficulty in producing sequences of speech sounds)?

a. insula
b. Broca’s area
c. superior temporal gyrus
d. Heschl’s gyrus

A

a. insula

15
Q

Which is the name given to the developmental language disorder that can be described in the following way? When one letter is present, letter naming is normal. When more than one letter is present, letter naming is difficult. Even if a letter is specially colored, underlined, has an arrow pointing to it, and is pointed to by the tester, it may be named incorrectly when it is not alone.

a. deep dyslexia
b. attentional dyslexia
c. phonological dyslexia
d. surface dyslexia

A

b. attentional dyslexia

16
Q

ANARTHRIA

A

incoordination of mouth muscles, resulting in speechlessness

17
Q

ALEXIA

A

inability to read

18
Q

AGRAPHIA

A

decline or loss of ability to write

19
Q

WERNICKE-GESCHWIND MODEL

A

organization of language in which there is a serial passage of info from auditory cortex –> posterior speech zone –> anterior speech zone

20
Q

PLANUM TEMPORALE

A

cortical area just posterior to Heschl’s gyrus (auditory cortex) w/in the Sylvian fissure

21
Q

GESTURAL THEORY

A

states that language developed from gestures used for communication

22
Q

FORMANT

A

group of sound waves specific to each vowel sound

23
Q

VOCAL FOLD

A

vocal cord

24
Q

DISCOURSE

A

highest level of language processing; sentences that form a meaningful narrative

25
Q

PROSODY

A

variation in stress, pitch, and rhythm of speech, by which different shades of meanings are conveyed

26
Q

SEMANTICS

A

study of meaning in language

27
Q

SYNTAX

A

way in which words are put together, following rules of grammar, to form phrases, clauses, or sentences; proposed to be uniquely human

28
Q

LEXICON

A

dictionary in the brain that contains words and their meanings

29
Q

MORPHEME

A

smallest meaningful unit of speech

30
Q

PHONEME

A

unit of sound that forms a word or part of a word

31
Q

DUAL-ROUTE THEORY

A

states that written language is achieved by using two distinct but interactive procedures: lexical and nonlexical

32
Q

DEVELOPMENTAL DYXLEXIA

A

inability to LEARN adequate reading skills, even with opportunity and adequate instruction

33
Q

DYSLEXIA

A

difficulty in reading

34
Q

ACQUIRED DYSLEXIA

A

inability to read caused by brain damage in a person who can read formerly (vs. developmental dyslexia)

35
Q

HEMISPHERECTOMY

A

removal of a cerebral hemisphere

36
Q

EXPRESSIVE APHASIA

A

disturbance of language in which there is a severe deficit in producing language

37
Q

AMNESIC APHASIA

A

aphasic syndrome characterized by inability to name objects, and the production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases while speaking

38
Q

TRANSCORTICAL APHASIA

A

a/k/a isolation syndrome, aphasia in which one (a) can repeat and understand words and name objects, but cannot speak spontaneously, or (b) can repeat but cannot comprehend words

39
Q

WORD SALAD

A

fluent aphasia in which one speaks intelligble words that appear to be strung together randomly

40
Q

WERNICKE’S APHASIA

A

inability to comprehend speech or produce meaningful speech; posterior cortex lesions; a/k/a sensory aphasia

41
Q

PURE APHASIA

A

aphasia in the absence of other language disorders

42
Q

NONFLUENT APHASIA

A

characterized by difficulty in articulating words; speech impairment from brain damage, particularly to frontal speech-dominant hemisphere

43
Q

FLUENT APHASIA

A

speech disorder in which one articulates words in a languagelike fashion but what is said actually makes little sense; left posterior damage

44
Q

PARAPHASIA

A

production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during speech